Module 4.3 - The Auditory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4.3 - The Auditory System Deck (36)
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1

what pushes air molecules together and apart in waves?

objects vibrating pushes air molecules together and apart in waves

2

what are the 2 functions of the human ear

1) to detect sound waves (sensation)
2) transform that information into neural signals (leading to perception)

3

frequency

a measure of wavelength reflecting the number of cycles a sound wave travels per second

4

what is frequency measured in?

Hertz (Hz)

5

pitch

the perceptual experience of sound wave frequencies

6

true or false: humans detect sounds from 20 - 20,000 Hz

True

7

amplitude

an element of a sound wave that determines its loudness

8

whats louder: high amplitude sound waves or low amplitude sound waves?

high amplitude sound waves are louder than low amplitude sound waves

9

what is loudness measured in?

Decibels (dB)

10

Timbre

the complexity of the sound. most natural sounds are complex, consisting of several different frequencies of vibration

11

what causes the basilar membrane to flex?

vibrations

12

what happens when the basilar membrane flexes?

it displaces fluid, which causes cilia to move. This movement stimulates auditory nerve fibers

13

cilia

hair like cells

14

true or false: cilia is arranged in rows from tallest to shortest

FALSE: cilia is arranged in rows from shortest to tallest

15

tip links

elastic filaments connecting groups of cilia in the cochlea

16

true or false: tip links are normally slightly stretched

true

17

does moving the bundle of cilia towards the tallest one increase or decrease the rate of firing

moving the bundle of cilia towards the tallest one increases the rate of firing

18

does moving the bundle of cilia towards the shortest one increase of decrease the rate of firing?

moving the bundle of cilia towards the shortest one decreases the rate of firing

19

what 3 places does the auditory nerve project to?

1) brainstem nuclei
2) the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
3) the primary and secondary auditory corticles

20

sound localization

the process of identifying where sound comes from; it is handled by parts of the brainstem and the inferior colliculus

21

sound can be localized by means of? (3 things)

1) arrival time differences between ears
2) phase differences between ears
3) intensity differences between ears

22

sound shadow

intensity differences between ears

23

volley principle

groups of neurons fire in an alternating fashion, thus allowing the frequencies higher than 1000Hz (the max vibration rate of the basilar membrane) to be perceived

24

do loud stimuli or quiet stimuli cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate more?

very loud stimuli

25

true or false: a higher rate of neural firing is associated with a louder stimuli

true

26

primary auditory cortex

a major perceptual centre of the brain involved in perceiving what we hear

27

tonotopic organization

different areas of the auditory cortex respond to different frequencies

28

secondary auditory cortex

a temporal lobe region that helps us to interpret complex sounds, including those found in speech and music

29

is the right or left hemisphere slightly more sensitive?

the right hemisphere is slightly more sensitive

30

________ are involved in the detection of musical beats

basal ganglia