Module 7.2 - Encoding and Retrieving Memories Flashcards Preview

intro psychology > Module 7.2 - Encoding and Retrieving Memories > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 7.2 - Encoding and Retrieving Memories Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

storage

the time and manner in which information is retained between encoding and retrieval

2

maintenance rehearsal

prolonging exposure to information by repeating it

3

elaborative rehearsal

prolonging exposure to information by thinking about meaning

4

levels of processing

retrieval ability is directly related to how the information was initially encoded

5

what are the 2 levels of processing?

shallow processing and deep processing

6

how can you improve your level of processing?

SPAR method

7

SPAR method

Survey
Process meaningfully
Ask Questions
Review

8

self-reference effect

a form of deep processing in which information is thought about in terms of how it relates to you

9

recall

retrieving information without the information being present during the retrieval process

10

recognition

identifying a previously displaying stimulus or piece of information when it is presented to you

11

what percent accuracy was there with recognition memory when researchers showed participants 2500 images and later asked participants to identify the images they have seen ?

90% accuracy

12

recall is helped by the ______

retrieval cues

13

encoding specificity principle

retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the same context as encoding

14

why were similar effects found for: the smell of a viking museum in York, the flavour of bubble gum and background noise levels?

linked with increased activity in the hippocampus and right PFC

15

a study involving stimulated crime showed increases in what 2 things in the context-congruent condition?

increase accuracy and increased false alarms

16

context dependent memory extends to ____states as well

internal

17

state-dependent memory

memory is superior when internal states (e.g., drunk) are similar for encoding and retrieval

18

mood-congruent memory

superior memory when ones mood is similar for encoding and retrieval

19

true or false: emotional events are better remembered than neutral events

only partially true

20

yerkes-dodson law

a moderate amount of stress or emotion helps memory. too much or too little emotion impairs memory

21

weapon focus

the tendency to focus on the weapon at the expense of peripheral information... including the identity of the person holding the weapon

22

weapon focus doesn't occur in who?

patients with amygdala damage

23

true or false: emotion has a larger effect on delayed vs immediate recall

true

24

flashbulb memory

an extremely vivid and detailed memory about an event and the conditions surrounding how one learned about the event

25

wht are the 4 reasons why we forget things?

1) poor encoding
2) some memory decays due to lack of use
3) proactive interference
4) retroactive interference

26

mnemonic

a technique intended to improve memory for specific information

27

method of loci

a mnemonic that connects words to be remembered to locations along a familiar path

28

acronym mnemonics

pronounceable words whose letters represent the initials of an important phrase or set of items

29

first-letter technique

uses the first letters of a set of items to spell out words that form a sentence

30

dual coding

when information is stored in more than one form - such as verbal description and a visual image