Flashcards in Module 7.2 - Encoding and Retrieving Memories Deck (33)
the time and manner in which information is retained between encoding and retrieval
prolonging exposure to information by repeating it
prolonging exposure to information by thinking about meaning
levels of processing
retrieval ability is directly related to how the information was initially encoded
what are the 2 levels of processing?
shallow processing and deep processing
how can you improve your level of processing?
a form of deep processing in which information is thought about in terms of how it relates to you
retrieving information without the information being present during the retrieval process
identifying a previously displaying stimulus or piece of information when it is presented to you
what percent accuracy was there with recognition memory when researchers showed participants 2500 images and later asked participants to identify the images they have seen ?
recall is helped by the ______
encoding specificity principle
retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the same context as encoding
why were similar effects found for: the smell of a viking museum in York, the flavour of bubble gum and background noise levels?
linked with increased activity in the hippocampus and right PFC
a study involving stimulated crime showed increases in what 2 things in the context-congruent condition?
increase accuracy and increased false alarms
context dependent memory extends to ____states as well
memory is superior when internal states (e.g., drunk) are similar for encoding and retrieval
superior memory when ones mood is similar for encoding and retrieval
true or false: emotional events are better remembered than neutral events
only partially true
a moderate amount of stress or emotion helps memory. too much or too little emotion impairs memory
the tendency to focus on the weapon at the expense of peripheral information... including the identity of the person holding the weapon
weapon focus doesn't occur in who?
patients with amygdala damage
true or false: emotion has a larger effect on delayed vs immediate recall
an extremely vivid and detailed memory about an event and the conditions surrounding how one learned about the event
wht are the 4 reasons why we forget things?
1) poor encoding
2) some memory decays due to lack of use
3) proactive interference
4) retroactive interference
a technique intended to improve memory for specific information
method of loci
a mnemonic that connects words to be remembered to locations along a familiar path
pronounceable words whose letters represent the initials of an important phrase or set of items
uses the first letters of a set of items to spell out words that form a sentence