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1

social psychology examines?

- the influence of the
social and cultural environment on the actions of individuals and groups
- the conditions under which people conform or dissent
- social and cultural reasons for prejudice and conflict between groups

2

what are the 2 parts of social cognition?

1) how others affect you
2) how you affect others

3

how others affect you

an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception and other cognitive processes

4

how you affect others

researchers are interested in how peoples perceptions of themselves and others affect their relationships, thoughts, beliefs and values

5

attribution theory

the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other peoples behaviour by attributing causes of that behaviour to a situation or disposition

6

internal attribution

explanations based on an individuals perceived stable characteristics, such as attitudes, personality traits, or abilities

7

internal attributions are called?

dispositional

8

external attributions

explanations based on the current situation and events that would influence all people

9

external attributions are called?

situational

10

what are the 3 sources of information when we make an internal external attribution that Harnl Kelley proposed?

1) consensus information
2) consistency information
3) distinctiveness

11

consensus information

how one individuals behaviour compares with other peoples

12

consistency information

how the persons behaviour varies over time

13

distinctiveness

how the persons behaviour varies between situations

14

fundamental attribution error

tendency in explaining others behaviours to overestimate personality factors and underestimate situational influence

15

what are the 3 biased attributions?

1) self-serving bias
2) group-serving bias
3) just-world hypothesis

16

self-serving bias

tendency, in explaining own behaviour, to take credit for ones good actions and rationalize ones mistakes. this optimizes our perception of ourselves

17

self-handicapping

we intentionally put ourselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for an expected defeat or failure

18

group-serving bias

the tendency to explain favourably the behaviours of members of groups to which we belong

19

just-world hypothesis

the notion that many people need to believe that there world is fair and that justice is served

20

attitudes

a relatively stable opinion containing beliefs and emotional feelings about a topic

21

what are the 3 components of attitudes?

1) evaluative/emotional component
2) cognitive component
3) behavioural component

22

where do attitudes come from? (3)

1) emotionally based attitudes
2) cognitively based attitudes
3) behaviourally based attitudes

23

emotionally based attitudes

based on value, such as religious beliefs and you family moral beliefs

24

cognitively based attitudes

based on an analysis of the relevant facts

25

behaviourally based attitudes

attitudes that are based on observations of how we behave toward an attitude object

26

explicit attitudes

we are aware of them they shape conscious decisions

27

implicit attitudes

we are unaware of them they may influence our behaviour in ways we do not recognize

28

what are the 3 factors influencing attitude change?

1) change in social environment
2) change in behaviours
3) due to a need for consistency

29

cognitive dissonance

a state of tension that exist when an individual realizes that he or she holds contradictory attitudes on an issue, or has exhibited behaviour that is inconsistent with an expressed attitude

30

cognitive dissonance theory

an individuals behaviour can chance his or her attitudes