Flashcards in Chapter 13 - part 1 Deck (48)
social psychology examines?
- the influence of the
social and cultural environment on the actions of individuals and groups
- the conditions under which people conform or dissent
- social and cultural reasons for prejudice and conflict between groups
what are the 2 parts of social cognition?
1) how others affect you
2) how you affect others
how others affect you
an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception and other cognitive processes
how you affect others
researchers are interested in how peoples perceptions of themselves and others affect their relationships, thoughts, beliefs and values
the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other peoples behaviour by attributing causes of that behaviour to a situation or disposition
explanations based on an individuals perceived stable characteristics, such as attitudes, personality traits, or abilities
internal attributions are called?
explanations based on the current situation and events that would influence all people
external attributions are called?
what are the 3 sources of information when we make an internal external attribution that Harnl Kelley proposed?
1) consensus information
2) consistency information
how one individuals behaviour compares with other peoples
how the persons behaviour varies over time
how the persons behaviour varies between situations
fundamental attribution error
tendency in explaining others behaviours to overestimate personality factors and underestimate situational influence
what are the 3 biased attributions?
1) self-serving bias
2) group-serving bias
3) just-world hypothesis
tendency, in explaining own behaviour, to take credit for ones good actions and rationalize ones mistakes. this optimizes our perception of ourselves
we intentionally put ourselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for an expected defeat or failure
the tendency to explain favourably the behaviours of members of groups to which we belong
the notion that many people need to believe that there world is fair and that justice is served
a relatively stable opinion containing beliefs and emotional feelings about a topic
what are the 3 components of attitudes?
1) evaluative/emotional component
2) cognitive component
3) behavioural component
where do attitudes come from? (3)
1) emotionally based attitudes
2) cognitively based attitudes
3) behaviourally based attitudes
emotionally based attitudes
based on value, such as religious beliefs and you family moral beliefs
cognitively based attitudes
based on an analysis of the relevant facts
behaviourally based attitudes
attitudes that are based on observations of how we behave toward an attitude object
we are aware of them they shape conscious decisions
we are unaware of them they may influence our behaviour in ways we do not recognize
what are the 3 factors influencing attitude change?
1) change in social environment
2) change in behaviours
3) due to a need for consistency
a state of tension that exist when an individual realizes that he or she holds contradictory attitudes on an issue, or has exhibited behaviour that is inconsistent with an expressed attitude