Flashcards in Module 3.1 - Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Behaviour Deck (49)
the basis units of heredity
what are genes responsible for?
guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up our physical structures and regulate development and physiological processes throughout the life span
genes are composed of ____
a molecule formed in a double helix
DNA is made up of 4 nucleotides called?
1) Guanine (G)
2) Cytosine (C)
3) Adenine (A)
4) Thymine (T)
the genetic makeup of an organism--the unique set of genes that comprise that individuals genetic code
the physical traits or behavioural characteristics that show genetic variation, such as eye colour, the shape and size of facial features and even personality
structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an individual inherits
humans have approx. ___-____ genes distributed across 23 pairs of chromosomes, half contributed by the mother ad half by the father
20,000 - 25,000 genes
if 2 corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes are the same
if 2 corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes differ
the study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behaviour
what is the human genome project attempting to identify?
the entire sequence of genes in the human body
how are genes related to diseases identified?
through the human genome project
true or false: small differences in the genetic sequence can subtly change the expression of genes that regulate the timing of development
the study of how genes and the environment influence behaviour
what does behavioural genetics examine?
examines the genetic basis of individual differences in behaviour and personality
monozygotic twins (identical twins)
come from a single ovum (egg), which makes them genetically identical (almost 100% genetic similarity)
dizygotic twins (fraternal twins)
come from 2 separate eggs fertilized by 2 different sperm cells that share the same womb; these twins have approx. 50% of their genetics in common
a statistic, expressed as a number between zero and one that represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behaviour or trait found in a population
heritability is expressed as a number from __ to __
0 to 1
true or false: heritability expressed as 0 means that genes do not contribute to individual differences
true or false: heritability expressed as 1 means that genes don't account for individual differences
FALSE: heritability expressed as 1 means that genes account for all individual differences
true or false: almost all trait scores are between 0 and 1
what 2 things affect any estimate of heritability?
1) the amount of genetic variability within the group being studied
2) the variability in the environments that members of that group might be exposed to
when a gene (or genes) becomes activitated
how do genes become activated?
due to preprogrammed (genetic) factors and "environmental" influences
changes in gene expression that occur as a result of experience
the process by which favourable trait become increasingly common in a population of interbreeding individuals while traits that are unfavourable become less common