Module 3.1 - Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 3.1 - Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Behaviour Deck (49)
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1

genes

the basis units of heredity

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what are genes responsible for?

guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up our physical structures and regulate development and physiological processes throughout the life span

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genes are composed of ____

DNA

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DNA

a molecule formed in a double helix

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DNA is made up of 4 nucleotides called?

1) Guanine (G)
2) Cytosine (C)
3) Adenine (A)
4) Thymine (T)

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genotype

the genetic makeup of an organism--the unique set of genes that comprise that individuals genetic code

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phenotype

the physical traits or behavioural characteristics that show genetic variation, such as eye colour, the shape and size of facial features and even personality

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chromosomes

structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an individual inherits

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humans have approx. ___-____ genes distributed across 23 pairs of chromosomes, half contributed by the mother ad half by the father

20,000 - 25,000 genes

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homozygous

if 2 corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes are the same

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heterozygous

if 2 corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes differ

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behavioural genomics

the study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behaviour

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what is the human genome project attempting to identify?

the entire sequence of genes in the human body

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how are genes related to diseases identified?

through the human genome project

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true or false: small differences in the genetic sequence can subtly change the expression of genes that regulate the timing of development

true

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behavioural genetics

the study of how genes and the environment influence behaviour

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what does behavioural genetics examine?

examines the genetic basis of individual differences in behaviour and personality

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monozygotic twins (identical twins)

come from a single ovum (egg), which makes them genetically identical (almost 100% genetic similarity)

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dizygotic twins (fraternal twins)

come from 2 separate eggs fertilized by 2 different sperm cells that share the same womb; these twins have approx. 50% of their genetics in common

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heritability

a statistic, expressed as a number between zero and one that represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behaviour or trait found in a population

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heritability is expressed as a number from __ to __

0 to 1

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true or false: heritability expressed as 0 means that genes do not contribute to individual differences

true

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true or false: heritability expressed as 1 means that genes don't account for individual differences

FALSE: heritability expressed as 1 means that genes account for all individual differences

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true or false: almost all trait scores are between 0 and 1

true

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what 2 things affect any estimate of heritability?

1) the amount of genetic variability within the group being studied
2) the variability in the environments that members of that group might be exposed to

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gene expression

when a gene (or genes) becomes activitated

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how do genes become activated?

due to preprogrammed (genetic) factors and "environmental" influences

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epigenetics

changes in gene expression that occur as a result of experience

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natural selection

the process by which favourable trait become increasingly common in a population of interbreeding individuals while traits that are unfavourable become less common

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evolution

the change int he frquency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over generations