Module 6.1 - Classical Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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1

learning

a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of expreience

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what are the 2 types of learning?

cognitive and associative

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ivan pavlov

physiologist who won a Nobel Prize for his research on digestion

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psychological reflex

the sight of food producing salivation

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what response did pavlov call psychic secretion?

the dogs sight of food produced salivation

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classical conditioning

learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimulus

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another name for classical conditioning?

pavlovian conditioning

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what are the 5 element of classical conditioning?

1) unconditioned stimulus (US)
2) unconditioned response (UR)
3) Neutral Stimulus
4) Conditioned stimulus (CS)
5) Conditioned Response (CR)

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unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learning

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unconditioned response

a reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus

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give 3 examples of unconditioned responses

salivation, flinching, blinking

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neutral stimulus

a stimulus that does not normally elicit a reflexive response

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conditioned stimulus

a once neutral stimulus that later elicits a response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned response

the learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus

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the conditioned stimulus must elicit a conditioned response in the absence of the __________ (e.g., food) for the conditioning to have occurred

unconditioned stimulus

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true or false: during conditioning, weak synapses fire at the same time as related strong synapses

true

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what does the simultaneous activity of the weak and strong synapses do?

strengthens the connections in the weaker synapse

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what is the US, UR, NS, CS, and CR for: The TV commercial for mega burger shows a big delicious cheeseburger. a 50's rock and roll song is played during the commercial. you see the commercial several times, and now when the song is playing on the radio, you get hungry

unconditioned stimulus: cheeseburger

unconditioned response: hunger

neutral stimulus: song

conditioned stimulus: song

conditioned response: hunger

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what is the initial phase of learning in which a response is established (e.g., salivating in response to a tone)

Acquisition

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conditioned ______ helps predict that the unconditioned stimulus will appear

conditioned stimulus

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what will be acquired more quickly when the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus

the conditioned response

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what makes acquisition stronger?

if the CS and US are consistently present close together in time

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what are the 2 stages of conditioning?

1) extinction
2) spontaneous recovery

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extinction

the loss or weakening of a CR when a CS and US no longer occur together

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what is an example of extinction?

if the tone is no longer a reliable predictor of food, then salivation becomes unnecessary

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spontaneous recovery

the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after some time has passed since extinction

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what are the 2 processes of conditioning?

1) stimulus generalization
2) stimulus discrimination

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stimulus generalization

a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different, though similar, stimuli

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stimulus discrimination

when an organism learns to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulus

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when does stimulus discrimination often occur?

when similar stimuli are NOT paired with US