Flashcards in Module 5.3 - Drugs Deck (40)
external substances that are taken for a specific effect
a substance that enhances or mimics the activity of a neurotransmitter
a substance that blocks or inhibits the activity of a neurotransmitter
do agonists produce "drug effects" or do antagonists?
Both agonists and antagonists can produce "drug effects"
list 4 ways that drugs affect the brain
1) altering the amount of the neurotransmitter being released into the synapse
2) preventing the reuptake (i.e., reabsorption back into the cell that released it)
3) blocking the receptor that the neurotransmiter would normally bind to
4) binding to the receptor in place of the neurotransmitter
a neurotransmitter that is involved in responses to rewarding, pleasurable feelings
what is likely related to the 'high' associated with many drugs?
dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is likely related to the 'high' associated with many drugs
true or false: the environmental setting influences drug effects
ie., 3 glasses of wine at a part vs. at home
what are 3 long term effects of drug abuse?
2) Physical Dependence
3) Psychological Dependence
when repeated use of a drug results in a need for a higher dose to get the intended effect
receptors move further from the surface of the post synaptic cell. as a result theres fewer receptors available for the neurotransmitter and the stimulation goes back to the normal state like before you started messing with drugs
the need to take a drug to ward off unpleasant physical withdrawal symptoms
occurs when addiction develops without any physical symptoms of withdrawal
what 3 factors cause dependence
Biological, Psychological and Social factors
a category of drugs that speed up the nervous system, typically enhancing wakefulness and alertness
what drug blocks dopamine reuptake?
what drug stimulates dopamine release?
a club drug that is typically classified as a stimulant but also has hallucinogenic effects
what does ecstasy do?
stimulates the release of serotonin and also blocks its reuptake
substances that produce perceptual distortions
what 2 drugs influence serotonin?
LSD and psilocybin (mushrooms)
what drug blocks glutamate receptors?
what is the primary psychoactive ingredient in ayahuasca
DMT (the "spirit drug")
an herb that grows in central and south america that induces highly intense but short-lived hallucinations
a detachment between self and body (salvia divinorum leads to it)
a drug comprising the leaves and buds of the cannabis plant that produces a combination of hallucinogenic, stimulant and relaxing (narcotic) effects
what is the active ingredient in marijuana? what brain chemical does it mimic?
the active ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it mimics the brain chemical anadamide
what does THC affect
THC affects executive processes like attentional control and decision making
drugs such as heroin and morphine that reduce pain and induce extremely intense feelings of euphoria