Module 5.3 - Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 5.3 - Drugs Deck (40)
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1

drugs

external substances that are taken for a specific effect

2

agonist

a substance that enhances or mimics the activity of a neurotransmitter

3

antagonist

a substance that blocks or inhibits the activity of a neurotransmitter

4

do agonists produce "drug effects" or do antagonists?

Both agonists and antagonists can produce "drug effects"

5

list 4 ways that drugs affect the brain

1) altering the amount of the neurotransmitter being released into the synapse
2) preventing the reuptake (i.e., reabsorption back into the cell that released it)
3) blocking the receptor that the neurotransmiter would normally bind to
4) binding to the receptor in place of the neurotransmitter

6

dopamine

a neurotransmitter that is involved in responses to rewarding, pleasurable feelings

7

what is likely related to the 'high' associated with many drugs?

dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is likely related to the 'high' associated with many drugs

8

true or false: the environmental setting influences drug effects

True

ie., 3 glasses of wine at a part vs. at home

9

what are 3 long term effects of drug abuse?

1) tolerance
2) Physical Dependence
3) Psychological Dependence

10

Tolerance

when repeated use of a drug results in a need for a higher dose to get the intended effect

11

down regulation

receptors move further from the surface of the post synaptic cell. as a result theres fewer receptors available for the neurotransmitter and the stimulation goes back to the normal state like before you started messing with drugs

12

physical dependence

the need to take a drug to ward off unpleasant physical withdrawal symptoms

13

psychological dependence

occurs when addiction develops without any physical symptoms of withdrawal

14

what 3 factors cause dependence

Biological, Psychological and Social factors

15

stimulants

a category of drugs that speed up the nervous system, typically enhancing wakefulness and alertness

16

what drug blocks dopamine reuptake?

cocaine

17

what drug stimulates dopamine release?

methamphetamines

18

ecstasy (MDMA)

a club drug that is typically classified as a stimulant but also has hallucinogenic effects

19

what does ecstasy do?

stimulates the release of serotonin and also blocks its reuptake

20

hallucinogenic drugs

substances that produce perceptual distortions

21

what 2 drugs influence serotonin?

LSD and psilocybin (mushrooms)

22

what drug blocks glutamate receptors?

Ketamine

23

what is the primary psychoactive ingredient in ayahuasca

DMT (the "spirit drug")

24

salvia divinorum

an herb that grows in central and south america that induces highly intense but short-lived hallucinations

25

dissociative experiences

a detachment between self and body (salvia divinorum leads to it)

26

Marijuana

a drug comprising the leaves and buds of the cannabis plant that produces a combination of hallucinogenic, stimulant and relaxing (narcotic) effects

27

what is the active ingredient in marijuana? what brain chemical does it mimic?

the active ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it mimics the brain chemical anadamide

28

what does THC affect

THC affects executive processes like attentional control and decision making

29

Opiates (narcotics)

drugs such as heroin and morphine that reduce pain and induce extremely intense feelings of euphoria

30

where do opiates bind

opiates bind to endorphin receptors in the nervous system; they reduce pain and produce pleasurable sensations