Flashcards in Module 8.2 - Problem Solving, Judgement, and Decision Making Deck (19)
an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
true or false: once established, schemas are fairly resistant to change (particularly if they are personal)
accomplishing a goal when the solution or the path to the solution is not clear
problem-solving strategies based on a series of rules
problem-solving strategies that stem from prior expriences and provide an educated guess as to what is the most likely solution
heuristics are like _______ that are usually accurate and allow us to find solutions and to make decisions quickly
"rules of thumb"
true or false: the first information learned about a subject can anchor a persons judgement about that subject.
true. subsequent judgements are related to this initial anchor point
"representativeness is an assessment of the degree of correspondence ebtween a sample and a population, an instance and a category, an act and an actor or, more generally, betwee an outcome and a model
true or false: representativeness heuristic are often correct but not always
refers to the false belief that when a sequence of coincidental events occur in a nonrandom pattern, subsequent events are more likely to deviate from the pattern than to continue in it
the tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances
how is 9/11 an example of availablility heuristic?
following it most people overestimated their odds of dying in a plane crash even though they continued to take higher risks by driving their cars
people try to minimize risks and losses when making decisions
a cogntive obstacle thast occurs when an individual attempts to pply a routine solution to what is actually a new type of problem
_________ make learning and problem solving more efficient
true or false: mental sets are helpful when a problem calls for fresh insights or a new approach
FALSE: mental sets are not helpful when a problem calls for fresh insights or a new approach
when an individual identifies an object or technique that could potentially solve a problem, but can think of only its most obvious function
the hindsight bias
the tendency to overestimate ones ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known