Module 8.2 - Problem Solving, Judgement, and Decision Making Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 8.2 - Problem Solving, Judgement, and Decision Making Deck (19)
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1

cognitive schema

an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world

2

true or false: once established, schemas are fairly resistant to change (particularly if they are personal)

true

3

problem solving

accomplishing a goal when the solution or the path to the solution is not clear

4

algorithms

problem-solving strategies based on a series of rules

5

heuristics

problem-solving strategies that stem from prior expriences and provide an educated guess as to what is the most likely solution

6

heuristics are like _______ that are usually accurate and allow us to find solutions and to make decisions quickly

"rules of thumb"

7

true or false: the first information learned about a subject can anchor a persons judgement about that subject.

true. subsequent judgements are related to this initial anchor point

8

representativeness heuristic

"representativeness is an assessment of the degree of correspondence ebtween a sample and a population, an instance and a category, an act and an actor or, more generally, betwee an outcome and a model

9

true or false: representativeness heuristic are often correct but not always

true

10

gamblers fallacy

refers to the false belief that when a sequence of coincidental events occur in a nonrandom pattern, subsequent events are more likely to deviate from the pattern than to continue in it

11

availability heuristic

the tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances

12

how is 9/11 an example of availablility heuristic?

following it most people overestimated their odds of dying in a plane crash even though they continued to take higher risks by driving their cars

13

avoiding loss

people try to minimize risks and losses when making decisions

14

mental set

a cogntive obstacle thast occurs when an individual attempts to pply a routine solution to what is actually a new type of problem

15

_________ make learning and problem solving more efficient

mental sets

16

true or false: mental sets are helpful when a problem calls for fresh insights or a new approach

FALSE: mental sets are not helpful when a problem calls for fresh insights or a new approach

17

functional fixedness

when an individual identifies an object or technique that could potentially solve a problem, but can think of only its most obvious function

18

the hindsight bias

the tendency to overestimate ones ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known

19

the hindsight bias is also known as the ________ phenomenon

I knew it all along phenomenon