Flashcards in Module 5.2 - Altered Consciousness Deck (30)
a procedure of inducing a heightened state of suggestibility
True or False: Hypnosis is a trance
FALSE: hypnosis is NOT a trance
what are the 3 types of suggestions given by a hypnotist?
1) Ideomotor Suggestions
2) Challenge Suggestions
3) Cognitive-Perceptual Suggestions
Related to specific actions that could be performed (e.g. put your left arm up in the air)
indicate actions that are not to be performed (e.g. dont touch the flood - its lava!)
involve a subject remembering or forgetting specific information, or experiencing altered perceptions such as educed pain sensations
hypnosis is a unique state in which consciousness is divided into 2 parts. What are these 2 parts?
1) an observer
2) hidden observer
explains hypnosis by emphasizing the degree to which beliefs and expectations contribute to increased suggestibility
what does executive processing influence?
executive processing influences peoples expectations
any procedure that involves a shift in consciousness to a state in which an individual is highly focused, aware and in control of mental processes
focused attention (FA) meditation
focusing attention on an object or feeling
what is activated through FA meditation?
areas of the brain related to attentional control - the frontal and parietal lobes
Open monitoring (OM) meditation
after initial training with FA meditation, meditators learn to pay attention to the moment-by-moment sensations without focusing on any particular object
what is activated through OM meditation?
activates brain structures involved with disengaging attention and on awareness of bodily states
what does meditation improve?
attentional control (one of our executive functions) and helps us remove ourselves from our own "stories" or self-focused, narratives
mindfulness-based stress reduction
MBSR programs teach and promote mindfulness meditation as a way of improving
well-being and reducing negative experiences
what other 3 things are MBSR used for?
depression, some psychiatric disorders and pain
a condition in which the brain, specifically including the brainstem, no longer functions
a state marked by a complete loss of consciousness
patients who are in a coma have an absence of both _______ and ________ of themseleves or their surroundings
what are the 2 types of vegetative states?
1) persistent vegetative state
2) permanent vegetative state
Persistent vegetative state
a state of minimal to no consciousness in which the patients eyes may be open, and the individual will develop sleep-wake cycles without clear signs of consciousness
where is the brain damage of persistent vegetative person?
extensive brain damage to the grey matter and white matter of both hemispheres
permanent vegetative state
when symptoms of persistent vegetative state do not improve after 3 months
what did Owen and colleagues find about vegetative patients?
found that some vegetative patients (5/54) could respond to verbal instructions
minimally conscious state (MCS)
a disordered state of consciousness marked by the ability to show some behaviours that suggest at least partial consciousness, even if on an inconsistent basis
a disorder in which the patient is aware and awake, but because of an inability to move his or her body, appears unconscious
what is locked-in syndrome caused by?
damage to part of the pons
True or false: most patients with locked-in syndrome remain paralyzed