Chapter 2 - Terms Flashcards Preview

Soc 101 > Chapter 2 - Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Terms Deck (34)
Loading flashcards...
1

Culture

the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next

2

material culture

the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

3

nonmaterial culture

a group’s ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction); also called symbolic culture

4

culture shock

the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life

5

ethnocentrism

the use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors

6

cultural relativism

not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms

7

symbolic culture

another term for nonmaterial culture

8

symbol

something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with one another

9

gestures

the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another

10

language

a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought

11

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf’s hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving

12

values

the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly

13

norms

expectations of “right” behavior

14

sanctions

either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them

15

positive sanction

an expression of approval for following a norm, ranging from a smile or a good grade in a class to a material reward such as a prize

16

negative sanction

an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prize or a prison sentence

17

folkways

norms that are not strictly enforced

18

mores

norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group

19

taboo

a norm so strong that it brings extreme sanctions, even revulsion, if violated

20

subculture

the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world

21

counterculture

a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture

22

pluralistic society

a society made up of many different groups

23

core values

the values that are central to a group, those around which people build a common identity

24

value cluster

values that together form a larger whole

25

value contradiction

values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other

26

ideal culture

a people’s ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them

27

real culture

the norms and values that people actually follow; as opposed to ideal culture

28

cultural universal

a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group

29

sociobiology

a framework of thought in which human behavior is considered to be the result of natural selection and biological factors

30

technology

in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools