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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Terms Deck (28)
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1

Social environment

The entire human environment, including interaction with others.

2

Feral children

children assumed to have been raised animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans.

3

Socialization

The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group – the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them.

4

Self

the unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves “from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us.

5

Looking-glass self

A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us.

6

Take the role of the other

Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks so you anticipate how that person will act.

7

Significant others

an individual who significantly influences someone else.

8

Generalized other

the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general”; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self.

9

id

Freud’s term for our inborn basic drives

10

Psychoanalysis

a technique for treating emotional problems through long-term exploration of the subconscious mind.

11

Ego –

Freud’s term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society.

12

Superego

– Freud’s term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups.

13

Gender –

The behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; mascunlity or feminity.

14

Gender/map gender socialization

– Learning society’s “gender map,” the paths in life set out for us because we are male or female.

15

Peer group

– a group of individuals, often of roughly the same age, who are linked by common interests and orientation

16

Mass media

- forms of communication, such as radio, newspaper, and television that are directed to mass media.

17

Gender

– the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or feminity

18

Social inequality

– A social condition in which privileges and obligations are given to some but denied to others.

19

Agents of socialization

– People or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations towards life.

20

Manifest function –

The intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions.

21

Latent function

– Unintended beneficial consequences of people’s actions.

22

Anticipatory socialization –

the process of learning in advance an anticipated future roles or status.

23

Resocialization

– The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.

24

Total institution –

a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them.

25

Degradation ceremony

- A term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to remake someone’s self by stripping away that individual’s self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place.

26

Life course

– the stages of our life as we go from birth to death.

27

Transitional adulthood

– A term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood also called adultescence

28

Transitional older years

– an emerging stage of the life course between retirement and when people are considered old about age 63 to 74