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1

deviance

the violation of norms (or rules or expectations)

2

crime

the violation of norms written into law

3

stigma

“blemishes” that discredit a person’s claim to a “normal” identity

4

social order

a group’s usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives

5

social control

a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing its norms

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negative sanction

an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prize or a prison sentence

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positive sanction

an expression of approval for following a norm, ranging from a smile or a good grade in a class to a material reward such as a prize

8

genetic predisposition

inborn tendencies (for example, a tendency to commit ­deviant acts)

9

street crime

crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary

10

personality disorders

the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms

11

differential association

Edwin Sutherland’s term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant

12

control theory

the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate

13

degradation ceremony

a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to remake someone’s self by stripping away that individual’s self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place

14

labeling theory

the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others’ perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity

15

techniques of neutralization

ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect (or neutralize) society’s norms

16

cultural goals

the objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve

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institutionalized means

approved ways of reaching cultural goals

18

strain theory

Robert Merton’s term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success), but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal; one adaptation to the strain is crime, the choice of an innovative means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal

19

illegitimate opportunity structure

opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life

20

white-collar crime

Edwin Sutherland’s term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; for example, bribery of public officials, securities violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing

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corporate crime

crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation

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criminal justice system

the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime

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recidivism rate

the percentage of released convicts who are rearrested

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capital punishment

the death penalty

25

serial murder

the killing of several victims in three or more separate events

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police discretion

the practice of the police, in the normal course of their duties, to either arrest or ticket someone for an offense or to overlook the matter

27

medicalization of deviance

to make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians

28

medicalization

the transformation of a human condition into a medical matter to be treated by physicians