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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Terms Deck (35)
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1

group

people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group

2

society

people who share a culture and a territory

3

shaman

the healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury; often called a witch doctor

4

hunting and gathering society

a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival

5

pastoral society

a society based on the pasturing of animals

6

horticultural society

a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools

7

domestication revolution

the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies

8

agricultural revolution

the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural societies

9

agricultural society

a society based on large-scale agriculture

10

Industrial Revolution

the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power

11

industrial society

a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels

12

postindustrial (information) society

a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing

13

biotech society

a society whose economy increasingly centers on modifying genetics to produce food, medicine, and materials

14

aggregate

individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together

15

category

people, objects, and events that have similar characteristics and are classified together

16

primary group

a small group characterized by cooperative intimate, longterm, face-to-face ­associations

17

secondary group

compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity

18

in-group

a group toward which one feels loyalty

19

out-group

a group toward which one feels antagonism

20

reference group

a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves

21

social network

the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together

22

clique (cleek)

a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another

23

group dynamics

the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals

24

small group

a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members

25

dyad

the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons

26

triad

a group of three people

27

coalition

the alignment of some members of a group against others

28

leader

someone who influences other people

29

instrumental leader

an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; also known as a task-oriented leader

30

expressive leader

an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader