Chapter 11 - Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Terms Deck (39)
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1

politics

the exercise of power and attempts to maintain or to change power relations

2

power

the ability to carry out one’s will, even over the resistance of others

3

micropolitics

the exercise of power in everyday life, such as deciding who is going to do the housework or use the remote control

4

macropolitics

the exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example

5

authority

power that people consider legitimate, as rightly exercised over them; also called legitimate power

6

coercion

power that people do not accept as rightly exercised over them; also called illegitimate power

7

state

a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory; commonly known as a country

8

revolution

armed resistance designed to overthrow and replace a government

9

traditional authority

authority based on custom

10

rational–legal authority

authority based on law or written rules and regulations; also called bureaucratic authority

11

charismatic authority

authority based on an individual’s outstanding traits, which attract followers

12

routinization of charisma

the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or a rational–legal form of authority

13

city-state

an independent city whose power radiates outward, bringing the adjacent area under its rule

14

monarchy

a form of government headed by a king or queen

15

democracy

a government whose authority comes from the people; the term, based on two Greek words, translates literally as “power to the people”

16

direct democracy

a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their decisions

17

representative democracy

a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives to meet together to discuss issues and make decisions on their behalf

18

citizenship

the concept that birth (and residence or naturalization) in a country imparts basic rights

19

universal citizenship

the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country (or by immigrating and becoming a naturalized citizen)

20

dictatorship

a form of government in which an individual has seized power

21

oligarchy

a form of government in which a small group of individuals holds power; the rule of the many by the few

22

totalitarianism

a form of government that exerts almost total control over people

23

proportional representation

an electoral system in which seats in a legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes that each political party receives

24

noncentrist party

a political party that represents less popular ideas

25

centrist party

a political party that represents the center of political opinion

26

coalition government

a government in which a country’s largest party does not have enough votes to rule, and to do so aligns itself with one or more smaller parties

27

voter apathy

indifference and inaction on the part of individuals or groups with respect to the political process

28

special-interest group

a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action

29

lobbyists

people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients

30

political action committee (PAC)

an organization formed by one or more special-interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation