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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Terms Deck (14)
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1

social change

the alteration of culture and societies over time

2

modernization

the transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies

3

dialectical process (of history)

each arrangement of power (a thesis) contains contradictions (antitheses) which make the arrangement unstable and which must be resolved; the new arrangement of power (a synthesis) contains its own contradictions; this process of balancing and unbalancing continues throughout history as groups struggle for power and other resources

4

invention

the combination of existing elements and materials to form new ones; identified by William Ogburn as one of three processes of social change

5

discovery

a new way of seeing reality; identified by William Ogburn as one of three processes of social change

6

diffusion

the spread of an invention or a discovery from one area to another; identified by William Ogburn as one of three processes of social change

7

cultural lag

Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations

8

postmodern society

another term for postindustrial society

9

alienation

Marx’s term for workers’ lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by workers being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product—this leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness; others use the term in the general sense of not feeling a part of something

10

sustainable environment

a world system that takes into account the limits of the environment, produces enough material goods for everyone’s needs, and leaves a heritage of a sound environment for the next generation

11

acid rain

rain containing sulfuric and nitric acids (burning fossil fuels release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide that become sulfuric and nitric acids when they react with moisture in the air)

12

environmental injustice

refers to how minorities and the poor are harmed the most by environmental pollution

13

ecosabotage

actions taken to sabotage the efforts of people who are thought to be legally harming the environment

14

environmental sociology

a specialty within sociology whose focus is how humans affect the environment and how the environment affects humans