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1

Sociological perspective

understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context

2

society

people who share a culture and a territory

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Social location

the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society.

4

Science

The application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtain by those methods.

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Natural sciences

the intellectual and academic discipliens designed to understand, explain, and predict events in our natural enviornment.

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Social sciences

the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations.

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Generalizations

a statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation

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Common sense

those things that "everyone knows" are true.

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Scientific method

the use of objective, systematic observations to test theories

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Positivism

the application of the scientific approach to the social world.

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Sociology

the scientific study of society and human behavior.

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Class conflict

Marx's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers

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Bourgeoisie

Marx's term for capitalists, those who own the means of production

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Proletariat

Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do nto own the means of production

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Social integration

the degree to which memebers of a group or a soceity are united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesison.

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patters of behavior

recurring behaviors or events

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value free

the view that a sociologist's personal values or beleifs should not influence social research.

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values

the standard by which people define what is deseriable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.

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Objectivity

value neutrality in research

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Replication

the repetition of a study in order to test its findings.

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Verstehen

a German word used by Weber that is perhaps best understood as "to have insight into someone's situation"

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subjective meanings

the meanings that people give their own behavior

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social facts

Durkheim's term for a group's pattersn of behavior

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basic (or pure) sociology

sociology in everday life logical research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups

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applied sociology

the use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution.

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public sociology

applying sociology for the public good; especially the use of the sociological perspective (how things are related to one another) to guide politicians and policy makers

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theory

a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together adnd how they work; an explanation of how two or mote facts are related to one another.

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Symbolic interactionism

a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.

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Functional analysis

a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism

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Conflict theory

a theortical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources.