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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Terms Deck (28)
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1

race

a group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from other groups

2

genocide

the annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people because of their presumed race or ethnicity

3

ethnicity (and ethnic)

having distinctive cultural characteristics

4

minority group

people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination

5

dominant group

the group with the most power, greatest privileges, and highest social status

6

ethnic work

activities designed to discover, enhance, maintain, or transmit an ethnic or racial identity

7

discrimination

an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group

8

racism

prejudice and discrimination on the basis of race

9

prejudice

an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way

10

contact theory

the idea that prejudice and negative stereotypes decrease and racial-ethnic relations improve when people from different racial-ethnic backgrounds, who are of equal status, interact frequently

11

individual discrimination

person-to-person or face-to-face discrimination; the negative treatment of people by other individuals

12

institutional discrimination

negative treatment of a minority group that is built into a society’s institutions; also called systemic discrimination

13

scapegoat

an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else’s troubles

14

authoritarian personality

Theodor Adorno’s term for people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors

15

split labor market

workers split along racial–ethnic, gender, age, or any other lines; this split is exploited by owners to weaken the bargaining power of workers

16

reserve labor force

the unemployed; unemployed workers are thought of as being “in reserve”—capitalists take them “out of reserve” (put them back to work) during times of high production and then put them “back in reserve” (lay them off) when they are no longer needed

17

selective perception

seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others

18

compartmentalize

to separate acts from feelings or attitudes

19

population transfer

the forced transfer of a minority group

20

ethnic cleansing

a policy of eliminating a population; includes forcible expulsion and genocide

21

internal colonialism

the policy of exploiting minority groups for economic gain

22

segregation

the policy of keeping racial–ethnic groups apart

23

assimilation

the process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture

24

multiculturalism (or pluralism)

a policy that permits or encourages ethnic ­differences

25

WASP

white anglo saxon protestant

26

white ethnics

white immigrants to the United States whose cultures differ from WASP culture

27

rising expectations

the sense that better conditions are soon to follow, which, if unfulfilled, increases frustration

28

pan-Indianism

an attempt to develop an identity that goes beyond the tribe by emphasizing the common elements that run through Native ­American cultures