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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Terms Deck (29)
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1

sacred

Durkheim’s term for things set apart or forbidden that inspire fear, awe, reverence, or deep respect

2

profane

Durkheim’s term for common elements of everyday life

3

religion

according to Durkheim, beliefs and practices that separate the profane from the sacred and unite its adherents into a moral community

4

church

according to Durkheim, one of the three essential elements of ­religion—a moral community of believers; also refers to a large, highly organized religious group that has formal, sedate worship services with little emphasis on evangelism, intense religious experience, or personal conversion

5

state religion

a government–ponsored religion; also called ecclesia

6

civil religion

Robert Bellah’s term for religion that is such an established feature of a country’s life that its history and social institutions become sanctified by being associated with God

7

functional equivalent

a substitute that serves the same functions (or meets the same needs) as something else; for religion, an example is psychotherapy

8

rituals

ceremonies or repetitive practices; in religion, observances or rites often intended to evoke a sense of awe of the sacred

9

cosmology

teachings or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world

10

religious experience

a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God

11

born again

a term describing Christians who have undergone a religious experience so life-­transforming that they feel they have become new persons

12

modernization

the transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies

13

spirit of capitalism

Weber’s term for the desire to accumulate capital—not to spend it, but as an end in itself—and to constantly reinvest it

14

Protestant ethic

Weber’s term to describe the ideal of a self–denying, highly moral life accompanied by thrift and hard work

15

monotheism

the belief that there is only one God

16

polytheism

the belief that there are many gods

17

animism

the belief that all objects in the world have spirits, some of which are dangerous and must be outwitted

18

anti-Semitism

prejudice, discrimination, and persecution directed against Jews

19

reincarnation

in Hinduism and Buddhism, the return of the soul (or self) after death in a different form

20

cult

a new religion with few followers, whose teachings and practices put it at odds with the dominant culture and religion

21

charismatic leader

literally, someone to whom God has given a gift; in its extended sense, someone who exudes extraordinary appeal to a group of followers

22

charisma

literally, an extraordinary gift from God; more commonly, an outstanding, “magnetic” personality

23

sect

a religious group larger than a cult that still feels substantial hostility from and toward society

24

evangelism

an attempt to win converts

25

ecclesia

a religious group so integrated into the dominant culture that it is difficult to tell where the one begins and the other leaves off; also called a state religion

26

denomination

a “brand name” within a major religion; for example, Methodist or Baptist

27

secular

belonging to the world and its affairs

28

secularization of religion

the replacement of a religion’s spiritual or “other worldly” concerns with concerns about “this world”

29

secularization of culture

the process by which a culture becomes less influenced by religion