Flashcards in ✅Case Study - Antarctica as a Global Common Deck (76)
What does Antarctica store?
Most of the world's fresh water
How does the continent change in winter?
It doubles in size
When was Antarctica discovered?
In 1821, by sealers
When was the heroic exploration of Antarctica?
What is an ice sheet?
Results from small inputs of snow and frost (exceeding ablation rates) over a very long time
What is ablation?
The opposite of accumulation, refers to all processes that remove snow, ice and water from the glacier or snowfield
What is a nunatack?
An exposed, rocky element of a ridge, mountain or peak not covered by snow or ice within or at the edge of an ice field or glacier. Also know as glacial islands
What is the Antarctic convergence zone?
A natural boundary separating two distinct hydrological regions/ areas of distinct climate
Why do Antarctic waters freeze at such low temperatures?
Because they are so salty
What happens at the Antarctic convergence zone?
Warm surface water and cold antarctic water meet
What is global thermohaline circulation?
When water moves along gradients
How does water have a tendency to move?
From warm to colder areas
How much of the land is ice free?
Less than 5%
What do mean winter temperatures range from?
-9 to -68 degrees C
What are claims of Antarctic land founded on?
Discovery and exploration of areas
Proximity to Antarctica
Seeking control of natural resources
When was the Antarctic Treaty created?
How many countries have now signed the treaty?
What are the main intentions of the treaty?
Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only
Antarctica should be a site of scientific investigation
No nation would be obligated to surrender its claim, and no new claim could be made
What does the environmental protocol of the treaty state?
Commits the parties to comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment
Designates Antarctica as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science
Bans all commercial mineral resource activity
Requires assessment of impacts of any activities
When will the environmental protocol be revised?
How many environmental NGOs work in coalition to protect Antarctica?
What human activities threaten Antarctica?
How many permanent scientific bases exist on Antarctica?
How can scientific research threaten the environment?
In 1989, an Argentine ship ran aground and released 25,000 gallons of fuel into the sea. Similar events have occurred at Russian and US bases
Where have coal seams been discovered?
Along the coastline and in the mountains
Why has activity at coals seams so far been deterred?
It isn't commercially viable, but may be needed fr future demand
Where has a great potential for oil?
The Weddel and Ross seas, on the continental shelf
How many barrels of oil are estimated to be in the Weddel and Ross seas?
What is the only large scale exploitation in Antarctica?