✅Case Study - Antarctica as a Global Common Flashcards Preview

AQA A Level Geography - HUMAN > ✅Case Study - Antarctica as a Global Common > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅Case Study - Antarctica as a Global Common Deck (76)
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1

What does Antarctica store?

Most of the world's fresh water

2

How does the continent change in winter?

It doubles in size

3

When was Antarctica discovered?

In 1821, by sealers

4

When was the heroic exploration of Antarctica?

1895-1922

5

What is an ice sheet?

Results from small inputs of snow and frost (exceeding ablation rates) over a very long time

6

What is ablation?

The opposite of accumulation, refers to all processes that remove snow, ice and water from the glacier or snowfield

7

What is a nunatack?

An exposed, rocky element of a ridge, mountain or peak not covered by snow or ice within or at the edge of an ice field or glacier. Also know as glacial islands

8

What is the Antarctic convergence zone?

A natural boundary separating two distinct hydrological regions/ areas of distinct climate

9

Why do Antarctic waters freeze at such low temperatures?

Because they are so salty

10

What happens at the Antarctic convergence zone?

Warm surface water and cold antarctic water meet

11

What is global thermohaline circulation?

When water moves along gradients

12

How does water have a tendency to move?

From warm to colder areas

13

How much of the land is ice free?

Less than 5%

14

What do mean winter temperatures range from?

-9 to -68 degrees C

15

What are claims of Antarctic land founded on?

Discovery and exploration of areas
Proximity to Antarctica
Seeking control of natural resources

16

When was the Antarctic Treaty created?

1959

17

How many countries have now signed the treaty?

46

18

What are the main intentions of the treaty?

Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only
Antarctica should be a site of scientific investigation
No nation would be obligated to surrender its claim, and no new claim could be made

19

What does the environmental protocol of the treaty state?

Commits the parties to comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment
Designates Antarctica as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science
Bans all commercial mineral resource activity
Requires assessment of impacts of any activities

20

When will the environmental protocol be revised?

2048

21

How many environmental NGOs work in coalition to protect Antarctica?

Over 1000

22

What human activities threaten Antarctica?

Scientific research
Mineral exploitation
Fisheries
Tourism

23

How many permanent scientific bases exist on Antarctica?

40

24

How can scientific research threaten the environment?

In 1989, an Argentine ship ran aground and released 25,000 gallons of fuel into the sea. Similar events have occurred at Russian and US bases

25

Where have coal seams been discovered?

Along the coastline and in the mountains

26

Why has activity at coals seams so far been deterred?

It isn't commercially viable, but may be needed fr future demand

27

Where has a great potential for oil?

The Weddel and Ross seas, on the continental shelf

28

How many barrels of oil are estimated to be in the Weddel and Ross seas?

50 billion

29

What is the only large scale exploitation in Antarctica?

Fishing

30

What are the impacts of fishing in Antarctica?

Over-fishing of target species
Effects on species that depend on target species
Killing of other species accidentally caught
Destruction of habitat by equipment