✅ - Global systems Flashcards Preview

AQA A Level Geography - HUMAN > ✅ - Global systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅ - Global systems Deck (25)
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What is interdependence?

When governments, companies, and countries are reliant and dependent upon one another


What can unequal flows of money and people create?

Stability, but also inequality


In unequal flows of people, what are the pros for source countries?

Migrants may send money back to the home country - remittances
Reduces pressure on services in the country, population pressure


In unequal flows of people, what are the cons for source countries?

Population decrease, fewer people, smaller workforce
Looses tax, decrease in economy and skills
Population ages as younger people move away
Many people die on the way, boats on Mediterranean


In unequal flows of people, what are the pros for recipient countries?

Greater workforce, boosts economy
Cheap labour
Greater levels of tax, more people spending
Culture, social links
Skilled workforce, doctors etc
Fills low skill, low paid jobs


In unequal flows of people, what are the cons for recipient countries?

Increased population, demand for housing, jobs etc
Demand for infrastructure
Can lead to social tension, race riots, unrest
Increases cost for border control
1.53 million detained on Mexico border, costly
Human rights issues, Qatar


What is the World Bank?

Organisation of 188 countries who work to promote financial co-operation to reduce poverty, usually through promotion of trade and high employment


What is the UN?

Known as the 'Guardian of International Peace, Security and Human rights'. Promotes development of poorer nations through work with the IMF and World Bank


What is the WTO?

Deals with the rules of trade between countries ensuring trade flows freely, in favour of free trade


What is the IMF?

Important source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries, main aim is to reduce poverty


What is outsourcing?

The movement of labour to developing nations to use cheap labour costs and less strict working conditions


What can the impacts of outsourcing be?

Loss of jobs and de-industrialisation in the outsourcing country


What is the de-multiplier effect?

Once people have lost their jobs, they can't spend, so services in an area are lost and the area falls into decline


What is the Gini Index?

Used to indicate internal inequality


What would a Gini Index value of 1 indicate?

That all a country's income went to one person


What would a Gini Index value of 0 indicate?

The a country's income was divided completely equally


How has the World Gini coefficient changed over the last 200 years?

It has risen, from 0.43 in 1820 to 0.68 in 2005


What is an example of product interdependence?

Ukraine's reliance on Russia for their oil and natural gas, and Russia's reliance on Ukraine and EU for income


How much of Ukraine's Gas comes from Russia?



How much of the EU's gas comes from Russia?



What happened in 2002 that angered Russia over Ukraine?

NATO asked Ukraine to join, and the EU suggested joining EFTA


How did Russia react to the offerings from the EU to Ukraine?

They offered oil discounts and money for rejecting the deals


When did Russia turn off Ukraine's gas supply?

2006, 2009, 2014


Which countries are 100% reliant on Russia for their gas?

Finland, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia


How much of Russia's income comes from oil and gas sales?