Flashcards in ✅18.104.22.168 - Social and Economic Issues Associated with Urbanisation Deck (28)
What is cultural diversity?
Existence of a variety of cultural/ethnic groups within a society
What is diaspora?
A group of people with similar heritage or homeland who have settled elsewhere in the world
What is economic inequality?
The difference between levels of living standards or income
What is social segregation?
Groups of people living apart from the larger population for a variety of factors
What is urban social exclusion?
Economic and social problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation
What is poverty?
An absolute term referring to a poor standard of living which doesn't change over time
What is inequality?
Refers to the economic differences between people at a variety of scales. All relative and not absolute
What are the 7 dimensions of deprivation?
Health and disability
Education, skills and training
Housing and services
What are some of the strategies to improve economic inequality?
Schools providing equal education
Low skill jobs
How can housing lead to inequality?
New migrants generally are poor upon arrival and live in multiple occupancy rented accommodation. Ethnic minorities less successful at securing loans and mortgages
How can education lead to inequality?
Children usually attend nearest school, which may lead to a school becoming dominated by one ethnic group in particular areas. Additional English lessons may be required and special religious provisions
How can health lead to inequality?
Many minority ethnic groups live in inner city areas, with close association of poorer health levels. Tends to be a result of the poor built environment
How can religion lead to inequality?
Migrants may wish to follow their own religious calendars, which could lead to friction with employers and local communities. Misunderstanding of religious practices such as traditional clothing may also lead to conflict.
How can gender lead to inequality?
Women from ethnic minority groups might adopt different cultural preferences, traditions and norms. There may be a tendency for women t be the primary carers and they may be disadvantaged in terms of employment opportunities
What are some of the reasons for city diversity?
Point of entry for migrants
Specialist shops and services
Tolerant of migrants
How can inequality be reduced through education?
Increasing children's achievement by improving educational provision and opportunities in deprived areas, seeking to improve literacy where English is a second language
How can inequality be reduced through Employment?
Increasing employment through initiatives to ensure basic skills and access to information and training
How can inequality be reduced though communities?
Increasing community involvement by ensuring that the needs of minority groups are understood and met
How can inequality be reduced through decreasing segregation?
Providing facilities that encourage meetings of all sections of a community rather than separate ethnic groups
How can inequality be reduced through specialist services?
Providing these specialist services, such as female doctors for women of specific religious beliefs
When did London become 'global'?
How many main waves of migration has London had?
When were London's main waves of migration?
1950s-70s: settlers from former empire
1990s-2000s: refugees from Balkans, Africa, Iraq
2004: those from former communist countries
+ a wave of undocumented migrants
When did Bradford begin to rapidly expand?
Where did many of Bradford's migrants come from after WW2?
Pakistan and the Caribbean
How did inequality between races develop in Bradford?
Indian Hindus and Sikhs moved into the middle class much quicker then Pakistanis
What did Bradford have in June 2009?
The highest levels of deprivation in the UK, with high infant mortality and low life expectancy