Flashcards in ✅Place Study - Detroit Deck (62)
Where is Detroit located?
In Michigan, North East US on the Canadian border
What is heavy industry?
Industry that involves one or more characteristics of large and heavy equipment or facilities, or complex and numerous processes
What was the 'Steel Belt'?
A belt of the North East US where established waterways, roads and railroads connected coalfields and rich iron ores to produce much of America's steel products
Why did Detroit's location make it key to the Steel Belt?
The Appalachian coalfields were to the south and Michigan's upper peninsula has rich iron ore, so resources were easily available
What were the '3 giants' in Detroit?
Ford, General Motors and Chrysler
What did Detroit become famous for within the steel belt?
How did Henry Ford change industrial processes?
He invented the production line in 1913
What happened after the Great Depression?
People moved North to find work
How many people did Ford employ when it first opened?
Why were Ford jobs so attractive?
They paid well and allowed workers to afford the cars they were building
How did Detroit's population change between 1820 and 1920?
It grew form 1000 to 1,000,000 and the % White stayed roughly constant
How did Detroit's population change between 1930 and 2010?
It shrank from 1,800,000 to 700,000, and from predominantly White (92%) to predominantly Black (83%)
When did the population peak?
When were the Great Migrations?
Between 1910 and 1980
Why did many Black residents move to Detroit from the South?
To escape racial segregation laws and find jobs
How much of Detroit is suburbs?
Why is so much of Detroit made up of suburbs?
Construction of interstate highways
High taxes and house prices in city
Racial tensions in city
Cars become more accessible for travel
Business moved out of Detroit
What were some of the forces of change in Detroit?
Globalisation, TNCs, International Institutions
How did oil prices cause decline in the city?
As the oil crisis hit (1956), prices quadrupled and people were put off buying and running cars, so the automotive industry suffered
How did TNCs cause decline in Detroit?
They provided competition as other manufacturers produced similar products at cheaper prices, forcing companies in Detroit to look elsewhere for cheaper labour costs
How did the number of automotive firms in Detroit change in the years of the oil crisis?
Fell from 3400 to 2300
When did Detroit declare bankruptcy?
How do wages in Detroit today compare to the US as a whole?
They are $2.12 an hour lower for skilled workers
How does overall educational attainment compare to other states today?
What tax laws were passed in 2012?
To lower income tax rates to lowest in Midwest, tries to attract people
How much of the city is currently empty?
What are the top employers in Detroit today?
Trade, transportation and utilities
Professional and business services
What is an enclave?
Areas within a city where people of a certain culture come together, characteristic of migration
Which cities did African-Americans move to in the migration?
Detroit, Chicago, New York