Flashcards in ✅22.214.171.124 - Urban forms Deck (52)
What is an urban form?
The physical characteristics that go towards making up an urban area, shape, size, population density etc
What features do world cities have?
Major transport links
Higher quality education facilities
More luxurious leisure and entertainment
Hub for trade and manufacturing, industry
Centre for decision making and power on global scales
What are pre-industrial cities?
Largely unaffected by industrial developments and have retained much of urban layout and characteristics, historic buildings such as churches and castles dominate city centre eg Bath, York, Lincoln
What are modern/industrial cities?
Similar activities and similar people group together, homogenous areas with each area dominated by particular land use. Dominant CBD and residential zoning eg Birmimgham
What are post-industrial cities?
Urban mosaic - more chaotic and looser structure with many smaller zones rather than one or two domination. Multi-nodal structure and less dominant CBD eg Tokyo, Milton Keynes
What are public-transport oriented/motor based cities?
Integrated approach to planning, developments along railway lines and main roads, linked to major road networks and non-residential land use on urban fringe eg. Hong Kong and Detroit
What are African cities?
Cities grown from colonial settlements and have not experienced the industrialisation of US/European urban centres, dominant CBD and political/cultural centre. eg Nairobi, Cape Town
What are socialist cities?
Followed principle of classless cities, everyone should live in same type of housing block irrespective of location, housing located close to services to encourage walking, homogeneous with large administrative/political centre rather than commercial eg Prague
What are wet points?
If an area is likely to flood, people are less inclined to live there. If there is reliable water sources, a population may thrive.
What are dry points?
In areas of drought, people are less inclines to live there, but if floods are rare it may be beneficial
What are gap towns?
Between hills/mountains where less people visit due to the difficult location, smaller population and long, thin shape due to valleys
How do resources affect urban characteristics?
The more resources a city has, the more they can build and the more growth can occur economically and physically
How does relief affect urban characteristics?
Flatter land requires higher prices, good to build on. Attracts wealthy people and businesses
Which contrasting settings can be used to compare urban characteristics?
Dharavi, Mumbai and Jewellery Quarter, Birmingham
What is the CBD?
The commercial and business centre of a city
What are residential areas?
Area providing accommodation and other services
What are out of town retail developments?
Large, specially built areas usually on the edge of town where there are lots of large shops and other facilities as well as free parking
What are business and science parks?
An organisation managed by professionals whose main aim is to increase the wealth of its community by promoting the culture of innovation and competitiveness
What is the inner city?
An area near the centre of a city, especially associated with social and economic problems
Describe the Hoyt model:
A central CBD, with surrounding lower class residential and light manufacturing extending out from the centre in some areas. Middle and upper class residential towards the outside, round the edge
Describe the multiple nuclei model:
A fairly central, but offset CBD surrounded by lower and middle class residential on either side. Includes industrial parks and heavy industry on outskirts and different nuclei of light manufacturing and wholesale
What is Bid-Rent theory/distance decay?
The further the distance from the CBD, the lower the price of land
What are examples of new urban landscapes?
Cultural and heritage quarters
What are town centre mixed developments?
Blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional and industrial uses, interconnected both physically and functionally. Safely and easily accessed by pedestrians
What are the pros of town centre mixed developments?
Helps prevent/manage CBD decline
New offices and recreational areas
People encouraged into the city centre
What are the cons of town centre mixed developments?
Still possible for CBD decline, doesn't always prevent it
Expensive, high land value
What is an example of a town centre mixed development?
What are changes in city centre cultural and heritage quarters?
Cultural quarter developed to encourage growth and revitalise the local economy in the arts and creative industries
What are the pros of cultural and heritage quarters?
Make use of long term associations with certain things, eg Gloucester Docks
Focused on the history of the area