Flashcards in ✅184.108.40.206 - Urbanisation Deck (42)
What is urbanisation?
An increase in the proportion of a country's population living in an urban area
What is suburbanisation?
The decentralisation of people, employment and services towards the edges of an urban area
What is counter-urbanisation?
Population movement from large urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas
What is urban resurgence?
Population movement away from rural areas and back to urban ones
What is urban growth?
Increase in the total population of a town or city
What is urban expansion?
Increase in physical size/footprint of a town or city
Why are urban areas important?
Organisation of economic production
Exchange of ideas/creative thinking
Social and cultural centres
Centres of political power and decision making
What is urbanism?
The idea that there is a certain way of living and functioning in urban areas, a lifestyle
Where is most urbanisation taking place?
Asia and Africa
Why can data on urbanisation be unreliable?
All countries define it differently
What is a megacity?
A metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million
What is a metacity?
A metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 20 million
How much of the world's population lived in urban areas in 2014?
What are world cities?
Cities seen to have an impact and important role in the global economic system and that link with other cities
What are the features of world cities?
Highly interconnected, usually MEDCs due to stable financial influence
What is an Alpha ++ city?
Cities most integrated within the economy
What is an Alpha + city?
Advanced service niches for the global economy
What is a Beta city?
Cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.
What is urban growth caused by?
Population growth and rural to urban migration
What are the consequences of urban growth?
More infrastructure required
Loss of wildlife and habitat
Commuting, congestion and pollution
Increased fuel consumption
What are push factors for rural to urban migration?
Agricultural problems such as low rainfall, divisions of land
High levels of local disease and inadequate medical provisions
Wars and civil strife
What are pull factors for rural to urban migration?
Employment in factories and service industry, better paid than in rural areas
High demand for unskilled labour
Informal sector jobs, goods and transport etc
Better quality provisions such as education, healthcare
What is deindustrialisation?
The loss of jobs in the manufacturing sector, movement out of the city
What are factors affecting deindustrialisation?
Mechanisation - no longer need people
Competition from imports - cheap products from China
Reduced demand for traditional products such as steel
What are the characteristics of suburbanisation?
Arterial roads and railway lines
Private housing estates
What are the causes of suburbanisation?
Outward growth of urban developments which engulfs surrounding areas
Improved transport, commuting
Inner cities become less desirable
What are the effects of suburbanisation?
More car use, better public transport
Greenbelts created to control developments
Urban sprawl, less environment
Funding moved out of inner city
What are the characteristics of Counter-urbanisation?
Movement of people from major urban areas to smaller, rural settlements
What are the causes of counter urbanisation?
Cheaper rural house prices, want to escape bust, polluted crime hotspots. Increased car ownership