✅3.2.3.1 - Urbanisation Flashcards Preview

AQA A Level Geography - HUMAN > ✅3.2.3.1 - Urbanisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅3.2.3.1 - Urbanisation Deck (42)
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1

What is urbanisation?

An increase in the proportion of a country's population living in an urban area

2

What is suburbanisation?

The decentralisation of people, employment and services towards the edges of an urban area

3

What is counter-urbanisation?

Population movement from large urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas

4

What is urban resurgence?

Population movement away from rural areas and back to urban ones

5

What is urban growth?

Increase in the total population of a town or city

6

What is urban expansion?

Increase in physical size/footprint of a town or city

7

Why are urban areas important?

Organisation of economic production
Exchange of ideas/creative thinking
Social and cultural centres
Centres of political power and decision making

8

What is urbanism?

The idea that there is a certain way of living and functioning in urban areas, a lifestyle

9

Where is most urbanisation taking place?

Asia and Africa

10

Why can data on urbanisation be unreliable?

All countries define it differently

11

What is a megacity?

A metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million

12

What is a metacity?

A metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 20 million

13

How much of the world's population lived in urban areas in 2014?

54%

14

What are world cities?

Cities seen to have an impact and important role in the global economic system and that link with other cities

15

What are the features of world cities?

Highly interconnected, usually MEDCs due to stable financial influence

16

What is an Alpha ++ city?

Cities most integrated within the economy

17

What is an Alpha + city?

Advanced service niches for the global economy

18

What is a Beta city?

Cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.

19

What is urban growth caused by?

Population growth and rural to urban migration

20

What are the consequences of urban growth?

Urban sprawl
More infrastructure required
Loss of wildlife and habitat
Commuting, congestion and pollution
Increased fuel consumption

21

What are push factors for rural to urban migration?

Agricultural problems such as low rainfall, divisions of land
High levels of local disease and inadequate medical provisions
Wars and civil strife
Natural disasters

22

What are pull factors for rural to urban migration?

Employment in factories and service industry, better paid than in rural areas
High demand for unskilled labour
Informal sector jobs, goods and transport etc
Better quality provisions such as education, healthcare

23

What is deindustrialisation?

The loss of jobs in the manufacturing sector, movement out of the city

24

What are factors affecting deindustrialisation?

Mechanisation - no longer need people
Competition from imports - cheap products from China
Reduced demand for traditional products such as steel

25

What are the characteristics of suburbanisation?

Arterial roads and railway lines
Ribbon developments
Private housing estates

26

What are the causes of suburbanisation?

Outward growth of urban developments which engulfs surrounding areas
Improved transport, commuting
Inner cities become less desirable

27

What are the effects of suburbanisation?

More car use, better public transport
Greenbelts created to control developments
Urban sprawl, less environment
Funding moved out of inner city

28

What are the characteristics of Counter-urbanisation?

Movement of people from major urban areas to smaller, rural settlements

29

What are the causes of counter urbanisation?

Cheaper rural house prices, want to escape bust, polluted crime hotspots. Increased car ownership

30

What are the effects of counter urbanisation?

Modern housing estates built in rural areas and old properties refurbished
Tension due to developments
Services shut down such as schools, pubs, post offices etc
Increased local house prices