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Egypt (3100 - 1070 B.C.)

The ancient Egyptian Civilization flourished along the Nile River. During the early period, Egypt was divided into the lower kingdom, around the Nile delta, and the Upper kingdom, south of the delta. By about 3100 B.C a pharaoh, King Namer (also known as Menes), United the 2 kingdoms. Egyptian accomplishments include building gigantic pyramids that still dazzle us, developing hieroglyphs and writing about their lives, and preserving mummies to prepare the dead for the journey to the afterlife


Egypt - Old Kingdom (2686-2181 B.C.)

The Egyptian civilization had existed for several years by the time the Old Kingdom is established. During the Old Kingdom:
-The Great Pyramids are built at Dashur and Giza
-Khafre builds the Sphinx
-Hieroglyphics, developed hundreds of years earlier, come into widespread use daring the Old Kingdom
-Papyrus is first used as a writing material
-The embalming process to preserve bodies is developed
-Religion focuses on the sun


Egypt - Middle Kingdom (1991 - 1786 B.C.)

The Old Kingdom comes to an end when Egypt splits into two smaller states. Around 1991 B.C., Mentuhotep ll reunites Egypt, ushering in the Middle Kingdom:
-Pharaohs, who at at the highest of their power, encourage trade
-Harvests increase as irrigation techniques improve
-Egypt, during the reigns of Senworset l and lll, conquers Nubia
-Classical period- art and literature flourish


Egypt - New Kingdom (1554 - 1070 B.C)

The Middle Kingdom crumbles when the Hyksos invade northern Egypt. They bring horse-drawn chariots and bronze weapons from Western Asia. This new technology enables the Hyksos to defeat the Egyptian s. In time, however, the Egyptians master these innovations and turn them against their Hyksos overlords. This leads to Theban kings reunifying Egypt and the rise of the new kingdom:
-Pharaohs work to strengthen Egypt’s empire and expand it east and south
-Pharaohs build elaborate tombs in the Valley of the Kings
-Egypt’s first female pharaoh rules - Hatshepsut
-Akhenaten attempts to introduce a monotheistic religion
-The brief reign of Tutankhamen showcases the era’s wealth
-Ramses ll rules for 67 years and glorifies his reign with monuments and temples


What does Babylon mean

Gate of the Gods


Who is known as the father of history

Herodotus (Greek)


How big was Nebuchadnezzar’s Empire

It stretched from the borders of Egypt to the Persian Gulf and along the Mediterranean cost of what is now Lebanon


How did Babylon change under Hammurabi’s rule

It grew from a small city-state into a great center for trade and government


Where did Babylon’s trade routes extend during Nebuchadnezzar’s rule

Babylonians traded up and down the Euphrates River and traveled to the Persian Gulf, for into Asia Minor, and to the ports along the Mediterranean Sea


Describe the walls Nebuchadnezzar had built

He fortified the double walls around the city and had an outer wall built beyond that. The outer wall was so wide, it could hold 2 chariots side-by-side. Towers were built on top of the outer wall and a moat was built around it


What are 3 great Babylonian building projects

Ishtar’s Gate, the Tower of Babel, and the Hanging Gardens


Where was King Nebuchadnezzar’s favorite dwelling

The Southern Palace