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Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Cells and Energy Deck (137)
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What are the 3 basic challenges of life

1. Obtaining and using energy
2. Reproducing
3. Maintaining structure


Your cells need energy to do what

To perform chemical reactions


Who’s job is it to break down food

That’s a job for your teeth and digestive system


What does the digestive help to do for the cell

It helps break down food into smaller particles - the molecules that your cells can take in and use for energy


What do cells take in



What is glucose

A sugar molecule that cells get from food you ingest


Can cells use glucose

They can’t use the energy in that form


What is the process of breaking down glucose

Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm, and products of that process are transported into the mitochondria where they are converted into a form of chemical energy that cells can use in chemical reactions


What is the chemical formula for glucose



How do cells produce ATP

Mitochondria use oxygen (O2) to convert broken down glucose into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). This process is called cellular respiration


What is the relationship between glucose and ATP

The energy from the chemical bonds in glucose can be stored in a simpler form in the chemical bonds of an energy molecule called ATP. Cells can more readily use the energy in ATP to fuel chemical reactions that take place within cells


What is ATP

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. It’s a universal form of energy that is useful for many different chemical reactions needed inside the cell


What do the healthiest people have in common

In the healthiest people, the catabolic and anabolic reactions are balanced


What does having a high metabolism mean

A high metabolism means more energy is required just to stay alive


What is BMR

BMR is the basal metabolic rate or a measure of the amount of energy that a person needs at rest without doing any other tasks or digesting food


What is a calorie

A unit of energy found on nutrition labels


What kind of reaction allows muscles to contract

Anabolic reactions are those that use ATP to form bonds in cells


Where is chemical energy contained

Chemical energy is the energy contained in the bond that bind one atom to another in a molecule. The energy stored in the bonds can be converted to other forms and ultimately used to make other chemical reactions happen in the cell


In a glucose diagram what are the letters and lines

The letters are elements and the lines and bonds


Almost all the chemical energy comes from a process called what



What happens in the process of photosynthesis

In this process cells use the energy of sunlight to make a sugar called glucose. The plant takes in carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight and creates the glucose molecule


What does the word photosynthesis mean

To make with light


Where does photosynthesis occur

In plant leaves, unicellular algae, prokaryotic bacteria, giant kelps, and seaweed


The lower part of the leaf have openings called what



What does the stomata allow

These allow gases to enter and exit the leaf


The gases from the stomata move through a group of net-like cells called what

The spongy layer


In what part of the leaf does photosynthesis take place

Photosynthesis takes place in a group of columnar cells that are found at the top of the leaf where the sunlight strikes most directly


What is the palisade layer filled with

It is crammed with chloroplasts


Plant leaves are specialized for what

For getting hit with sunlight. They are flat organs that turn their upper sides to the sunlight


What is the highest layer of a leave called

Upper Epidermis