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Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Genetics and Heredity Deck (211)
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Genetics Definition

The study of how heritable characteristics are determined and passed from parents to offspring


Heredity Definition

The ability to pass on genetics traits, such as color of the eyes, from parent to child through DNA


When did the understanding of genetics begin

The understanding of genetics began with a 19th century Augustinian monk who grew pea plants in the garden of a monastery in Austria, named Gregor Mendel


Who is considered the father of genetics

Gregor Mendel


Heritable Definition

Transmitted from parents to offspring regardless of environment


What is a Genetic Counselor

A person who has studied genetics and advises people on genetic issues, such as diseases


What did Gregor Mendel notice about pea-plants

Gregor Mendel noticed pea plants had certain identifiable and measurable features, or characteristics


Characteristics Definition

An identifiable or measurable feature of an organism, such as size, color, or texture


What features did Mendel notice about pea plants

Height, flower color, and seed texture


What did Gregor Mendel wonder about pea plant’s characteristics

He wondered if these went from generation to generation


Due to his wonder of heritable traits in pea plants, what did Mendel do to find out of pea plant characteristics go from generation to generation

To find out, Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants exhibiting different characteristics and observed the offspring. He then crossed the offspring with one another to see which characteristics showed up in the next generation of plants. He observed that some characteristics, such as flower color, seed shape, and seed color, were heritable, or passed on from parents to offspring regardless of environment


Cross Pollination Definition

The process of transferring pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower. In Mendel’s investigation, the pollen was transferred from the anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower one a different plant


Factors Definition

The term Mendel used to describe what he hypothesized must be in all cells of organisms that determine the way traits are transmitted from parents to offspring


What did Mendel reason about the way traits are inherited

Mendel reasoned that certain factors in the cells of an organism determined the way traits are transmitted from parents to offspring


The qualities Mendel observed in his pea plants are referred to what today



Trait Definition

The specific observable form of an inheritable characteristic, such as tall height, pink for flower color, or smooth for seed texture


What is a true-breeder

A plant that pollinates itself


What is an independent variable

The factor that changes or manipulates in an experiment


What is a dependent variable

The dependent variable responds to the independent variable, which is what the scientists measure


What generation are the original two plants that Mendel used in

The parent generation


What generation are the first set of offspring Mendel produced

The first generation


What realization of Mendel was critical to his understanding of inheritance

His realization that the first-generation plants were not true-breeding


Dominant Definition

The characteristic of a trait that is expressed whether the trait is passed on from one or both parents


What did Mendel hypothesize about the dominancy of traits in the pea plants

He hypothesized that one factor, trait from parent, is dominant over the other


Recessive Definition

The characteristic of a trait that is never expressed in the presence of a dominant trait, and is expressed only if the trait is passed on from both parents


Why do true-breeding plants produce identical offspring

The factors of a particular trait in true- breeding plants therefore must be the same (for example YY or yy). This is why true-breeders keep producing the same type of progeny when crossed with themselves


What are the basic units of inheritance called

The basic units of inheritance, which Mendel called factors, are called genes by scientists today


Genes Definition

A section of a chromosome that typically contains the code for a particular protein, which determines a specific trait


What are scientists referring to when talking about genes

When scientists talk about genes, they are typically referring to sections of DNA that control the production of the cell’s proteins - and hence all of the activities and characteristics of an organism


True of False: There are different forms of the height gene that can make a plant grow tall or remain short