Kevin’s Cards about Genetics and Heredity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Genetics and Heredity Deck (211)
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1

Genetics Definition

The study of how heritable characteristics are determined and passed from parents to offspring

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Heredity Definition

The ability to pass on genetics traits, such as color of the eyes, from parent to child through DNA

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When did the understanding of genetics begin

The understanding of genetics began with a 19th century Augustinian monk who grew pea plants in the garden of a monastery in Austria, named Gregor Mendel

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Who is considered the father of genetics

Gregor Mendel

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Heritable Definition

Transmitted from parents to offspring regardless of environment

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What is a Genetic Counselor

A person who has studied genetics and advises people on genetic issues, such as diseases

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What did Gregor Mendel notice about pea-plants

Gregor Mendel noticed pea plants had certain identifiable and measurable features, or characteristics

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Characteristics Definition

An identifiable or measurable feature of an organism, such as size, color, or texture

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What features did Mendel notice about pea plants

Height, flower color, and seed texture

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What did Gregor Mendel wonder about pea plant’s characteristics

He wondered if these went from generation to generation

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Due to his wonder of heritable traits in pea plants, what did Mendel do to find out of pea plant characteristics go from generation to generation

To find out, Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants exhibiting different characteristics and observed the offspring. He then crossed the offspring with one another to see which characteristics showed up in the next generation of plants. He observed that some characteristics, such as flower color, seed shape, and seed color, were heritable, or passed on from parents to offspring regardless of environment

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Cross Pollination Definition

The process of transferring pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower. In Mendel’s investigation, the pollen was transferred from the anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower one a different plant

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Factors Definition

The term Mendel used to describe what he hypothesized must be in all cells of organisms that determine the way traits are transmitted from parents to offspring

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What did Mendel reason about the way traits are inherited

Mendel reasoned that certain factors in the cells of an organism determined the way traits are transmitted from parents to offspring

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The qualities Mendel observed in his pea plants are referred to what today

Traits

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Trait Definition

The specific observable form of an inheritable characteristic, such as tall height, pink for flower color, or smooth for seed texture

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What is a true-breeder

A plant that pollinates itself

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What is an independent variable

The factor that changes or manipulates in an experiment

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What is a dependent variable

The dependent variable responds to the independent variable, which is what the scientists measure

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What generation are the original two plants that Mendel used in

The parent generation

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What generation are the first set of offspring Mendel produced

The first generation

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What realization of Mendel was critical to his understanding of inheritance

His realization that the first-generation plants were not true-breeding

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Dominant Definition

The characteristic of a trait that is expressed whether the trait is passed on from one or both parents

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What did Mendel hypothesize about the dominancy of traits in the pea plants

He hypothesized that one factor, trait from parent, is dominant over the other

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Recessive Definition

The characteristic of a trait that is never expressed in the presence of a dominant trait, and is expressed only if the trait is passed on from both parents

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Why do true-breeding plants produce identical offspring

The factors of a particular trait in true- breeding plants therefore must be the same (for example YY or yy). This is why true-breeders keep producing the same type of progeny when crossed with themselves

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What are the basic units of inheritance called

The basic units of inheritance, which Mendel called factors, are called genes by scientists today

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Genes Definition

A section of a chromosome that typically contains the code for a particular protein, which determines a specific trait

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What are scientists referring to when talking about genes

When scientists talk about genes, they are typically referring to sections of DNA that control the production of the cell’s proteins - and hence all of the activities and characteristics of an organism

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True of False: There are different forms of the height gene that can make a plant grow tall or remain short

True