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Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Cells and Energy Deck (137)
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61

What happens to the molecule glucose during glycolysis

The glucose molecule is split into other molecules, including 2 ATP molecules

62

What happens after glycolysis

After glycolysis, the broken glucose molecules react to produce more ATP. If oxygen is present in the cell, a set of aerobic reactions called cellular respiration occur. In cellular respiration, the glucose molecule s broken down to form many ATP molecules. Water and carbon dioxide are also made in the process. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria

63

What are the two types of fermentation

Latic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation

64

Why is it important to eat healthy foods

Your cells need certain nutrients to function properly. Eating food that are rich in nutrients provide your cells, and your body, the necessary materials to perform these functions

65

Why is exercise important to the health of your cells

Exercise increases the amount of oxygen in the blood. The oxygen is needed for cellular respiration to occur

66

Why are proper digestion and respiration important to good health

Digestion and respiration provide the materials necessary for your cells to properly function. Healthy foods provide nutrients, and exercise provides more oxygen needed for the cells to carry out their functions

67

The act of breaking down glucose is one of the most what

Fundamental reactions of the cell

68

Where do both latic acid and alcoholic fermentation take place

In the cell’s cytoplasm

69

What is latic acid fermentation

Latic acid fermentation is one kind of an anaerobic process. This is what happens in your muscles when they are forced to make ATP without oxygen. The molecules from glycolysis is turned into a substance called latic acid. In the process, another molecule, NAD+, is formed. NAD+ is used in glycolysis where a small amount of ATP can be made

70

What is alcoholic fermentation

In alcoholic fermentation, the molecule from glycolysis is converted, not to latic acid, but instead to ethyl alcohol. This process is used to produce alcohols for drinking. As with latic acid fermentation, NAD+ is formed, which goes back into glycolysis so ATP can be made

71

How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related

Photosynthesis creates glucose molecules to store energy. Cellular respiration breaks down the glucose molecules to release the stored energy

72

What is ATP composed of

ATP is a complex molecule with useable energy stored in its “tail”. The tail is made of three phosphate groups, each of which consists of an atom of phosphorus and some oxygen atoms. ADP, adenosine diphosphate, is a molecule closely related to ATP

73

What is ADP composed of

In ADP, there are only two phosphate groups attached to the ribose of the molecule. The prefix di- means “two”, indicating that there are two phosphate groups on the ribose

74

What the only difference between ATP and ADP

The addition of one phosphate group

75

Adenine Definition

A double ringed structure containing both nitrogen and carbon and is an amino acid

76

Ribose Definition

This is a 5-carbon sugar that attaches to adenine and to the first phosphate group

77

Phosphate Definition

Each group of phosphorus and oxygen is a phosphate group

78

What are the order of groups in ATP, ADP, and AMP

Adenine, Ribose, and Phosphate

79

How does ADP turn into ATP

With the proper combination of an available phosphate group, enzymes, and some energy, ADP can combine with the phosphate group to form ATP. The energy stored in the bond is the last bond. When ATP is converted back to ADP, energy is released when this same bond is broken

80

Why is one bond between phosphorus and oxygen made and broken over and over again

The reason is that it breaks easily and releases just the right amount of energy to make chemical reactions happen in the cell

81

What is the last phosphate in ATP used for

It can be used to drive many of the chemical reactions in a cell. As ATP converted, the energy released supplies energy for other reactions in the cell to occur. Consider the number of cells in your body. It takes many ATP molecules to provide enough energy for all of the process in your body

82

How much ATP does a person use a day

ATP is used and then reformed and used and reformed. But if you could fix all the ATP the body uses in one place and weigh it, the weight of ATP would equal the person’s body weight

83

ATP stands for what

Adenosine triphosphate

84

ADP stands for what

Adenosine diphosphate

85

AMP stands for what

Adenosine monophosphate

86

What does tri- mean

Three

87

What does di- mean

Two

88

What does mono- mean

One

89

How thick is the plasma membrane

8 nm thick

90

What is the currently accepted model of a membrane

The fluid mosaic model in which proteins of various types are embedded and floating around in a fluid double layer

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