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Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Cells and Energy Deck (137)
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What happens to the molecule glucose during glycolysis

The glucose molecule is split into other molecules, including 2 ATP molecules


What happens after glycolysis

After glycolysis, the broken glucose molecules react to produce more ATP. If oxygen is present in the cell, a set of aerobic reactions called cellular respiration occur. In cellular respiration, the glucose molecule s broken down to form many ATP molecules. Water and carbon dioxide are also made in the process. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria


What are the two types of fermentation

Latic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation


Why is it important to eat healthy foods

Your cells need certain nutrients to function properly. Eating food that are rich in nutrients provide your cells, and your body, the necessary materials to perform these functions


Why is exercise important to the health of your cells

Exercise increases the amount of oxygen in the blood. The oxygen is needed for cellular respiration to occur


Why are proper digestion and respiration important to good health

Digestion and respiration provide the materials necessary for your cells to properly function. Healthy foods provide nutrients, and exercise provides more oxygen needed for the cells to carry out their functions


The act of breaking down glucose is one of the most what

Fundamental reactions of the cell


Where do both latic acid and alcoholic fermentation take place

In the cell’s cytoplasm


What is latic acid fermentation

Latic acid fermentation is one kind of an anaerobic process. This is what happens in your muscles when they are forced to make ATP without oxygen. The molecules from glycolysis is turned into a substance called latic acid. In the process, another molecule, NAD+, is formed. NAD+ is used in glycolysis where a small amount of ATP can be made


What is alcoholic fermentation

In alcoholic fermentation, the molecule from glycolysis is converted, not to latic acid, but instead to ethyl alcohol. This process is used to produce alcohols for drinking. As with latic acid fermentation, NAD+ is formed, which goes back into glycolysis so ATP can be made


How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related

Photosynthesis creates glucose molecules to store energy. Cellular respiration breaks down the glucose molecules to release the stored energy


What is ATP composed of

ATP is a complex molecule with useable energy stored in its “tail”. The tail is made of three phosphate groups, each of which consists of an atom of phosphorus and some oxygen atoms. ADP, adenosine diphosphate, is a molecule closely related to ATP


What is ADP composed of

In ADP, there are only two phosphate groups attached to the ribose of the molecule. The prefix di- means “two”, indicating that there are two phosphate groups on the ribose


What the only difference between ATP and ADP

The addition of one phosphate group


Adenine Definition

A double ringed structure containing both nitrogen and carbon and is an amino acid


Ribose Definition

This is a 5-carbon sugar that attaches to adenine and to the first phosphate group


Phosphate Definition

Each group of phosphorus and oxygen is a phosphate group


What are the order of groups in ATP, ADP, and AMP

Adenine, Ribose, and Phosphate


How does ADP turn into ATP

With the proper combination of an available phosphate group, enzymes, and some energy, ADP can combine with the phosphate group to form ATP. The energy stored in the bond is the last bond. When ATP is converted back to ADP, energy is released when this same bond is broken


Why is one bond between phosphorus and oxygen made and broken over and over again

The reason is that it breaks easily and releases just the right amount of energy to make chemical reactions happen in the cell


What is the last phosphate in ATP used for

It can be used to drive many of the chemical reactions in a cell. As ATP converted, the energy released supplies energy for other reactions in the cell to occur. Consider the number of cells in your body. It takes many ATP molecules to provide enough energy for all of the process in your body


How much ATP does a person use a day

ATP is used and then reformed and used and reformed. But if you could fix all the ATP the body uses in one place and weigh it, the weight of ATP would equal the person’s body weight


ATP stands for what

Adenosine triphosphate


ADP stands for what

Adenosine diphosphate


AMP stands for what

Adenosine monophosphate


What does tri- mean



What does di- mean



What does mono- mean



How thick is the plasma membrane

8 nm thick


What is the currently accepted model of a membrane

The fluid mosaic model in which proteins of various types are embedded and floating around in a fluid double layer

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