Joints, Synovial Fluid and Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Systems: MSK AB > Joints, Synovial Fluid and Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints, Synovial Fluid and Cartilage Deck (36)
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1

How can joints be classified?

-Fibrous
-Cartilaginous
-Synovial

2

Give examples of fibrous joints.

-Periodontal ligament
-Cranial sutures
-Interosseous membranes

3

What cartilage is present in primary cartilaginous (synchondrosis) joints?

Hyaline only

4

What cartilage is present in secondary cartilaginous (symphysis) joints?

Hyaline and fibrocartilage

5

Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint.

Growth plates in long bones

6

Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joints.

Intervertebral disc

7

What are the common features of synovial joints?

-Synovial cavity which is fluid filled
-Articular cartilage
-Fibrous capsule
-Synovial membrane

May also contain:
-Articular discs
-Ligaments
-Bursa

8

What are the 6 types of synovial joint?

-Plane
-Hinge
-Pivot
-Condylar (ellipsoid)
-Saddle
-Ball and socket

9

Give an example of a plane synovial joint.

Between tarsal bones

10

Give an example of a synovial hinge joint.

Elbow

11

Give an example of a synovial pivot joint.

Radius on ulna

12

Give an example of a condylar synovial joint

Wrist

13

Give an example of a saddle synovial joint.

Sternoclavicular joint

14

Give an example of a ball and socket synovial joint.

Shoulder

15

What contributes to joint stability?

-Shape of articulating surfaces
-Capsule and ligaments
-Muscles

16

What is the main component of articular (hyaline) cartilage?

>75% water (incompressible)

17

Describe the layers of articular cartilage in synovial joints.

Superficial/tangential layer:
-flattened chondrocytes that produce collagen and glycoproteins (e.g. lubricin)

Transitional layer:
-Round chondrocytes that produce proteoglycans such as aggrecan

Change in collagen orientation from superficial to deep layers

18

Glycoproteins

Proteins to which oligosaccharide chains are attached (more protein than carbohydrate)

19

Give an example of a glycoprotein.

Lubricin

20

Proteoglycans

Proteins that are heavily glycosylated (more carb than protein (a protein core to which one or more GAGs attach)

21

Give an example of a proteoglycan

Aggrecan

22

Glycosaminoglycans

Long unbranched polysaccharides which are highly polar and thus attract water

23

Give an examples of a GAG

Hyaluronic acid

24

What is the thickness of articular cartilages in the body?

-Average = 2mm
-Interphalangeal joints= 1mm
-Patella= 5-6mm

25

What are the 3 As of cartilage?

-Avascular
-Aneural
-Alymphatic

26

How are nutrients and waste transferred to and from cartilage?

Synovial fluid produced by the synovium (synovial membrane)

27

What produced synovial fluid?

Synoviocytes in the synovium

28

What are the features of the synovium?

-Contains synoviocytes
-Rich capillary network
-No epithelial lining

Allows direct exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and metabolites between blood and synovial fluid

29

What are the features of type A synoviocytes?

-Look like macrophages
-Remove debris
-Contribute to synovial fluid production

30

What are the features of type B synoviocytes?

-Fibroblast like
-Main producer of synovial fluid