Flashcards in Joints, Synovial Fluid and Cartilage Deck (36)
How can joints be classified?
Give examples of fibrous joints.
What cartilage is present in primary cartilaginous (synchondrosis) joints?
What cartilage is present in secondary cartilaginous (symphysis) joints?
Hyaline and fibrocartilage
Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint.
Growth plates in long bones
Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joints.
What are the common features of synovial joints?
-Synovial cavity which is fluid filled
May also contain:
What are the 6 types of synovial joint?
-Ball and socket
Give an example of a plane synovial joint.
Between tarsal bones
Give an example of a synovial hinge joint.
Give an example of a synovial pivot joint.
Radius on ulna
Give an example of a condylar synovial joint
Give an example of a saddle synovial joint.
Give an example of a ball and socket synovial joint.
What contributes to joint stability?
-Shape of articulating surfaces
-Capsule and ligaments
What is the main component of articular (hyaline) cartilage?
>75% water (incompressible)
Describe the layers of articular cartilage in synovial joints.
-flattened chondrocytes that produce collagen and glycoproteins (e.g. lubricin)
-Round chondrocytes that produce proteoglycans such as aggrecan
Change in collagen orientation from superficial to deep layers
Proteins to which oligosaccharide chains are attached (more protein than carbohydrate)
Give an example of a glycoprotein.
Proteins that are heavily glycosylated (more carb than protein (a protein core to which one or more GAGs attach)
Give an example of a proteoglycan
Long unbranched polysaccharides which are highly polar and thus attract water
Give an examples of a GAG
What is the thickness of articular cartilages in the body?
-Average = 2mm
-Interphalangeal joints= 1mm
What are the 3 As of cartilage?
How are nutrients and waste transferred to and from cartilage?
Synovial fluid produced by the synovium (synovial membrane)
What produced synovial fluid?
Synoviocytes in the synovium
What are the features of the synovium?
-Rich capillary network
-No epithelial lining
Allows direct exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and metabolites between blood and synovial fluid
What are the features of type A synoviocytes?
-Look like macrophages
-Contribute to synovial fluid production