Flashcards in Ligament Injuries Deck (12)
What are ligaments?
-Dense bands of collagenous tissue (condensations capsule) which span a joint
-They are anchored to the bone at either end
What is the function of ligaments?
Offer joint stability through a range of motion (different portions ligament tensioned at different positions)
What is the structure of ligaments?
-Composed of collagen fibres (type 1) and fibroblasts (communicate)
-Have sensory fibres for proprioception, stretch and sensory
-Vessels at the surface
-Crimping allows stretch
How do ligaments compare to tendons in composition?
Compare to tendons, ligaments have:
-Lower percentage of collagen
-Higher percentage of proteoglycans and water
-Less organised collagen fibres
When does ligament rupture occur?
-Forces exceed strength of ligament (expected/unexpected/rate loaded)
-Can be complete or incomplete
What can ligament rupture result in?
-Loss of stability in the joint
What are the 3 stages of ligament healing?
What is involved in the haemorrhage stage of healing?
-Blood clot which is resorbed
-Replaced with a heavy cellular infiltrate
-Hypertrophic vascular response
What is involved in the proliferative stage of healing?
-Production of scar tissue
-Disorganised collagenous connective tissue
What is involved in the remodelling stage of healing?
-Matrix becomes more ligament like
-Major differences in composition, architecture and function persist
When is conservative treatment opted for in ligament ruptures?
-No instability of joint
-Poor candidate for surgery