Flashcards in Hip and Knee Anatomy Deck (39)
What are the features of the hip joint?
Strong, stable , multiatxial ball and socket type of synovial joint
What forms the ball and socket of the hip joint?
-Ball= femoral head
How is the depth of the acetabulum increased?
Depth of the acetabulum increased by the fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum and the transverse acetabular ligament
What does the head of the femur articulated with?
Head of the femur articulates with the cup-like acetabulum of the hip bone
Describe the covering of the head of the femur?
The head is covered with articular cartilage, except for the pit or fovea for the ligament of the head of femur
What ligaments are part of the hip joint capsule?
What is the function of the iliofemoral ligament?
Y shaped, prevents hyperextension of hip joint
What is the function of the pubofemoral ligament?
Prevents overabduction of hip joint
Where does the ischiofemoral ligament run?
From ischial part of the acetabular rim to the neck of the femur
What muscles are involved in flexing the hip?
-Tensor fasciae latae
-Adductor longus, brevis and magnus (anterior part)
What muscles are involved in hip extension
-Biceps femoris: long head
-Adductor magnus: posterior part
What muscles are involved in hip adduction?
What muscles are involved in hip abduction and medial rotation?
-Tensor fasciae latae
What muscles are involved in lateral rotation of the hip?
-Obturator internus & externus
What is the arterial supply of the hip joint?
Medial and lateral circumflex arteries (branches of profunda femoris)
What is the arterial supply to the head of the femur?
Branch of the obturator artery
What is the nerve supply to the hip joint?
Femoral, obturator and superior gluteal nerve
What type of joint is the knee joint?
Synovial hinge joint
What are the articular surfaces of the knee joint?
-Femoro -tibial (lateral & medial)
What leg bone is not involved in the knew joint?
What is the knee joint strengthened by?
5 Capsular ligmanets
What are the 5 ligaments of the knee joint?
-Fibular or lateral collateral ligament (FCL)
-Tibial or medial collateral ligament (TCL)
-Oblique popliteal ligament -Expansion of semimembranosus tendon
-Arcuate popliteal ligament
How may burae are found at the knee joint?
-12 bursae around knee joint
-4 bursae communicate with the joint cavity
What 4 bursae communicate with the knee joint cavity?
What is the structure of the tibial collateral ligament?
-Extends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to medial condyle and medial surface of the tibia
-Deep fibres of the TCL are firmly attached to the medial meniscus
What is the structure if the fibular collateral ligament?
-Extends from lateral epicondyle of femur to head of fibula
-Tendon of popliteus passes deep to the FCL
What are the intra-articular structures within the knee joint?
Cruciate ligaments and menisci
What are the features of the anterior cruciate ligament?
-Weaker of the two
-Poor blood supply
-Limits posterior rolling of femoral condyles on the tibia
-Prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperextension of knee
What are the features of the posterior cruciate ligament?
-Stronger of the two
-Limits anterior rolling of the femur on the tibia
-Prevents hyperflexion of the knee