Flashcards in The Acute Limping Child Deck (36)
What are common causes of limp?
-Soft tissue injury
What are less common causes of limp?
What pathologies are common in the 0-3 years?
-Soft tissue injury
What pathologies are common in the 3-10 years?
-Trauma ( bone/ ST)
What pathologies are common in the 11-15 years?
What other types of pathology can impact the MSK system of children?
-ST/ spine infection
What does SUFE stand for?
Slipped upper femoral epiphysis
How is SUFE defined?
Posteromedial displacement of the proximal femoral epiphysis in relation to the neck
Where in the physis foes SUFE occur?
Through the (widened) zone of hypertrophy in the physis
What is the epidemiology of SUFE?
-Age range 9-16 years
-Males mean=13.5 years
-Female mean= 12 years
What is SUFE due to?
Increased load, weak physis or both
What is the aetiology of SUFE?
-Delayed bone age
Secondary to underlying disorder (GH-IGF axis)
-Growth hormone therapy
What history dies SUFE present with?
-Pain- groin/ thigh/ knee
What may be found on physical exam of SUFE?
-Externally rotated extremity
-Obligatory external rotation in flexion
-ROM limited by pain
-Healing arthroscopy portals on ipsilateral knee
What may be seen on radiology of SUFE/
-Trethowan’s / Klein’s line
-More obvious on lateral view
-Horizontal physis (flexion contracture)
-Knee x-rays are usually normal!
-Blanch sign of Steel
-Or just an obvious slip
What are the key summary points for SUFE?
-Older child (rare but occasionally <10 yrs)
-Hip / thigh/ knee pain
-Acute, acute on chronic
-No clinical indicators of infection
-Limp, external rotation gait, knee flex into ER
-Frog lateral x-ray
-If x-ray positive should be referred for urgent review
How is SUFE treated?
Percutaneous screw fixation
What history is associated with infection?
-Limp (age dependent)
-General malaise/ loss of appetite/ listless
-Recent URTI/ ear infections
-Listen to the parent, they are usually right
What examination should be carried out for suspected infection?
-Do they look sick?
-Absolute refusal to weight bear?
-Localising area: ankle/tibia/knee/thigh/hip
-Hip: obligatory ER?, Which movements hurt
-Ankle: distal tibia or joint line?
-Knee: joint line or metaphyseal are
-Upper limb diffuse
What is the differential diagnosis for suspected infection?
What initial investigations should be done for suspected infection?
How does septic arthritis present?
-Swollen, red joint
-Refusal to move joint
What is the distribution of septic arthritis?
What are the possible routes of entry for septic arthritis?
-Dissemination from osteomyelitis
-Spread from adjacent soft tissue infection
-Consequence of diagnostic or therapeutic measures (injections)
-Penetrating damage by puncture or trauma
What investigations should be done for septic arthritis?
-FBC and differential (Raised WCC >12,000mm^3)
-ESR (>50 mm/hr)
-Blood Cultures (+ve in 30-50%)
-Ultrasound (always be present)
-Synovial fluid (WCC>50,000mm^3, Gram stain, culture)
What presenting variables help to direct in diagnosis?
-Ability to weight bear
How is septic arthritis treated?
What organism is the typical cause of septic arthritis?
What is the epidemiology of osteomyelitis?
-Mean age 6 years (10 years for pelvic)