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Flashcards in Spine Symposium Deck (96)
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1

What are the 3 main types of vertebrae?

-Cervical
-Thoracic
-Lumbar

2

Other than vertebrae, what other boy structures do the thoracic vertebrae articulate with?

Ribs

3

What natural curvatures of the spine exist?

-Cervical lordosis
-Thoracic kyphosis
-Lumbar lordosis

4

Name the erector spinae muscles?

-Iliocostalis
-Longissimus
-Spinalis

5

How do spinal nerves exit the vertebral column?

Through intervertebral foramen

6

Where does the spinal cord end?

L1 as the conus medularis

7

What is a dermatome?

An area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single nerve

8

What is a myotome?

The group of muscles that a single spinal nerve innervates

9

What are the mytomes of the upper limb?

-C5: Shoulder abduction (deltoid)
-C6: Elbow flexion/wrist extension (biceps)
-C7: Elbow extensors (triceps)
-C8:Long finger flexors (FDS/FDP)
-T1: Finger abduction (interossei)

10

What are the myotomes of the lower limb?

-L2: Hip flexion (iliopsoas)
-L3,4: Knee extension (quadriceps)
-L4: Ankle dorsiflexion (tib ant)
-L5: Big toe extension (EHL)
-S1: Ankle plantar flexion (gastrocnemius)

11

What is the association between fractures/dislocations and spinal cord injuries?

-15% of people with a fracture/dislocation will have SCI
-Majority of people with SCI will have an accompanying column injury

12

What is the epidemiology of spinal cord injuries?

-1,000 SCI / year in the UK
-50,000 people in the UK living with paralysis
-M>F
-Peak 20-29yrs

13

What are the most common causes of SCI?

-Falls
-RTAs
-Sports and recreational activities

14

How does a complete SCI present?

-No motor or sensory function distal to lesion
-No anal squeeze
-No sacral sensation
-ASIA Grade A
-No chance of recovery

15

How do incomplete SCI present?

-Some function is present below site of injury
-More favourable prognosis overall

16

Why can it not be determined if a SCI is complete or incomplete acutely?

Patient may be in spinal shock

17

What classification system is used in SCI?

Asia classification

18

What is grade A in the ASIA classification system?

-Complete
-No sensory or motor function preserved in sacral segments S4-S5

19

What is grade B in the ASIA classification system?

-Incomplete
-Sensory but not motor function preserved below the neurological level and extending through sacral segments S4-S5

20

What is grade C in the ASIA classification system?

-Incomplete
-Motor function preserved below the neurological level
-Majority of key muscles have a grade <3

21

What is grade D in the ASIA classification system?

-Incomplete
-Motor function preserved below the neurological level
-Majority of key muscles have a grade >3

22

What is grade E in the ASIA classification system?

Normal motor and sensory function

23

Give examples of patterns of SCI.

-Tetraplegia/Quadriplegia
-Paraplegia
-Central Cord Syndrome
-Anterior Cord Syndrome
-Brown-Sequard Syndrome

24

How does tetraplegia/quadriplegia present?

-Partial or total loss of use of all 4 limbs and the trunk
-Loss of motor/sensory function in cervical segments of the spinal cord
-Respiratory failure due to loss of innervation to the diaphragm (phrenic nerve C3-5)
-Spasticity

25

What causes tetraplegia/quadriplegia?

Cervical fracture

26

What is spasticity?

-Increased muscle tone due to an upper motor lesion
-Affects spinal cord and above
-Injuries above L1

27

How does paraplegia present?

-Partial or total loss of use of the lower-limbs
-Impairment or loss of motor/sensory function in thoracic, lumbar or sacral segments of the spinal cord
-Arm function spared
-Possible impairment of function in trunk,
-Spasticity if injury of spinal cord
-Bladder/bowel function altered

28

What causes paraplegia?

Thoracic and lumbar fractures

29

What is paraplegia associated with?

Chest or abdominal injuries

30

Give examples of partial cord syndromes.

-Central cord syndrome
-Anterior cord syndrome
-Brown-Sequard syndrome