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Flashcards in Pre-practical Lower Limb Deck (67)
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1

What are the components of the hip joint?

-Acetabulum
-Acetabular labrum
-Ligament of head of femur (intracapsular)
-Femoral head

2

What does the ligament of the head of the demur enclose?

It encloses a branch of the oburator artery, which comprises a small proportion of the hip joint blood.

3

What are the extracapsular ligaments of the hip joint?

-Iliofemoral
-Pubofemoral
-Ischiofemoral

4

What is the function of the iliofemoral ligament?

Prevents hyperextension of the hip joint

5

What is the function of the pubofemoral ligament?

Prevents excessive abduction and extension

6

What is the function of the ischiofemoral ligament?

Prevents excessive extension

7

How are the extrcapsular ligaments of the hip joint orientated?

These ligaments have a unique spiral orientation; this causes them to become tighter when the joint is extended, which adds stability to the joint.

8

What are the circumflex arteries branches of?

The profunda femoris artery

9

What is responsible for the majority of the blood supply to the hip joint?

Medial circumflex artery

10

What can damage to the medial circumflex artery result in?

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

11

What is Hilton's law?

Any major nerve supplying muscles that act on a joint will send a branches to also supply the joint

12

What nerves innervate the hip joint?

-Femoral nerve
-Obturator nerve
-Superior gluteal nerve
-Nerve to quadratus femoris

13

What ligaments are found in the gluteal region?

-Sacroiliac
-Sacrotuberous
-Sacrospinous

14

What are the actions of gluteus maximus?

-Extension of thigh at hip
-Abduction of thigh at jip
-External rotation of thigh at hip
-Stabilise the knee in extension of the thigh via the iliotibial band

15

What is the innervation of gluteus maximus?

Inferior gluteal nerve L5-S2

16

What is the blood supply to gluteus maximus?

Inferior gluteal nerve

17

What are the actions of gluteus medius and minimus?

-Abduction of the hip
-Internal rotation of the thigh
-Support the body on one limb in conjunction with tenor fascia lata

18

What is the innervation of gluteus medius and minimus?

Superior gluteal nerve L4-S1

19

What is the blood supply to gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?

Superior gluteal region

20

What are the actions of tensor fasciae lata?

Assiste with flexion and abduction of the thigh

21

What is the innervation of tensor fasciae lata?

Superior gluteal nerve L4-S1

22

What is the blood supply to tensor fasciae lata?

Superior gluteal nerve

23

Where can the sciatic nerve be located?

Sciatic nerve halfway between:
-Sacrum & greater trochanter
-Ischial tuberosity & lesser trochanter
-Natal cleft & lateral edge of thigh
-Inferior border of piriformis

24

What is Trendelenburg sign?

-Dipping gait of contralateral side when standing on one leg
-Compromised gluteus medius/ superior gluteus nerve

25

What muscles make up the hamstrings?

-Biceps femoris
-Semimembranosus
-Semitendinosus

26

Where do the hamstrings originate?

Ischial tuberosity

27

What nerve innervates the adductor compartment?

Obturator nerve

28

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

-Lymphatics
-Femoral vein
-Femoral artery
-Femoral nerve

29

What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

-Roof= inguinal ligament
-Medial= adductor longus
-Lateral= sartorius

30

What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?

-Anterior= sartorius
-Lateral= vastus medialis
-Posterior= adductor longus and adductor magnus