Flashcards in Hip and Knee Clinical Deck (20)
What type of joint is the hip?
Synovial ball and socket
What are the features of the hip joint?
-Sacrifices mobility for stability
-Congruity of articulating surfaces
-Deepened by labrum acetabulare (fibroelastic cartilage)
-Strong ligaments (intra- and extra-articular) and capsule
-Strong large muscles
What is the strongest ligament in the body?
Iliofemoral Y shaped ligament (otherwise known as ligament of Bigelow)
What stabilises the hip?
What nerves are associated with the hip?
-Femoral (Anterior, knee extension)
-Obturator (Medial, hip adduction)
-Sciatic (Posterior, hip external rotation, knee flexion)
-Superior gluteal (Posterior, hip abduction and extension)
What is the appearance of a dislocated hip?
What is the blood supply to the head of the femur?
-The Trochanteric anastomosis
What are the 3 compartments of the knee joint?
What type of joint is the knee?
How is the cartilage of the knee nourished?
-Articular cartilage is vascular but nutrients received through the synovial fluid
What are the features of the capsule of the knee joint?
-Large (connects with large suprapatellar pouch)
-Uneven thickness (bulges where thin if excess fluid in joint – effusion; n.b. Baker’s cyst in popliteal fossa – one-way valve effect)
-Lined completely by synovial membrane (inflamed = synovitis – swollen, red, painful
What is the normal 'Q' angle?
-14 in males
-17 in females
What is genu varum?
What is genu valgum?
What are the menisci?
-Medial and lateral c-shaped fibroelastic cartilage present in the knee joint
What is the function of the menisci?
-NOT a shock absorber
How do damaged menisci present?
-Medial> lateral, common
-Occurs in rotation, flexion and weightbearing knee
-Pop or crack with delayed swelling
-Locked knee that is soft and there is painful block to full extension
-Tender on affected side
What are the main ligaments of the knee?
Describe the medial collateral ligament of the knee.
-Flat, broad and blends with the capsule