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Systems: MSK AB > Hip and Knee Clinical > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hip and Knee Clinical Deck (20)
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1

What type of joint is the hip?

Synovial ball and socket

2

What are the features of the hip joint?

-Sacrifices mobility for stability
-Congruity of articulating surfaces
-Deepened by labrum acetabulare (fibroelastic cartilage)
-Strong ligaments (intra- and extra-articular) and capsule
-Strong large muscles

3

What is the strongest ligament in the body?

Iliofemoral Y shaped ligament (otherwise known as ligament of Bigelow)

4

What stabilises the hip?

-Labrum
-Congruity
-Capsule
-Ligaments
-Ligamentum teres
-Muscles

5

What nerves are associated with the hip?

-Femoral (Anterior, knee extension)
-Obturator (Medial, hip adduction)
-Sciatic (Posterior, hip external rotation, knee flexion)
-Superior gluteal (Posterior, hip abduction and extension)

6

What is the appearance of a dislocated hip?

-Posterior dislocation
-Leg short
-Internal rotation
-High energy

7

What is the blood supply to the head of the femur?

-Ligamentum Teres
-Retinacular vessels
-The Trochanteric anastomosis
-Capsular attachment

8

What are the 3 compartments of the knee joint?

-Medial tibiofemoral
-Lateral tibiofemoral
-Patellofemoral

9

What type of joint is the knee?

Synovial hinge

10

How is the cartilage of the knee nourished?

-Articular cartilage is vascular but nutrients received through the synovial fluid

11

What are the features of the capsule of the knee joint?

-Large (connects with large suprapatellar pouch)
-Uneven thickness (bulges where thin if excess fluid in joint – effusion; n.b. Baker’s cyst in popliteal fossa – one-way valve effect)
-Lined completely by synovial membrane (inflamed = synovitis – swollen, red, painful

12

What is the normal 'Q' angle?

-14 in males
-17 in females

13

What is genu varum?

Bow legs

14

What is genu valgum?

Knock knees

15

What are the menisci?

-Medial and lateral c-shaped fibroelastic cartilage present in the knee joint

16

What is the function of the menisci?

-Joint contour
-Load distribution
-Lubrication
-NOT a shock absorber

17

How do damaged menisci present?

-Medial> lateral, common
-Occurs in rotation, flexion and weightbearing knee
-Pop or crack with delayed swelling
-Locked knee that is soft and there is painful block to full extension
-Tender on affected side

18

What are the main ligaments of the knee?

-Medial collateral
-Lateral collateral
-Anterior cruciate
-Posterior cruciate

19

Describe the medial collateral ligament of the knee.

-Tibiofemoral
-Flat, broad and blends with the capsule
-Often damaged

20

Describe the lateral collateral ligament of the knee.

-Fibulofemoral
-Discrete, round, extra-articular with bobble hat insertion onto fibular head