Flashcards in Hypnotics/ADHD Deck (34)
FDA approved sleep aid medication, takes forever to work and lasts forever (like Slak). It should be avoided in elderly patients.
What are the major ADRs associated w/diphenhydramine?
- anticholinergic effects
- next day impairment
- large doses = hallucinogenic effect
What medication is beneficial for sleep maintenance but must be avoided in pt w/CVD?
When should you consider BZDs for sleep? Which has the quickest onset?
Quickest onset: Triazolam
Anterograde amnesia and complex sleep related behaviors are an adverse drug reaction from what class of meds?
BZDs and NBRAs
Which class of medications is approved for short term use for both sleep onset and sleep maintenance, but has minimal efficacy?
List the 3 NBRAs
Which class of meds require a lower dose for the elderly and women and are also on the Beer's list?
Which NBRA commonly has a metallic aftertaste?
What is the benefit of NBRAs over BZDs?
less tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, abuse
Melatonin is best for treating which type of sleep issues?
Sleep latency (falling asleep)
Which medication is used for the treatment of non-24hr sleep wake disorder?
What are the 2 orexin receptor antagonists used to treat sleep latency +/- sleep maintenance?
In general, ADs, 2nd gen antipsychotics, and AEDs/neuropathic analgesics should only be used to treat insomnia if _____.
they are already being taken to treat an underlying comorbid disease
What is the 1st and 2nd step for treatment of insomnia?
1. Nonpharm (CBT)
2. Pharm - if necessary.
- start low and go slow
- 4-5x higher mortality in pt on rx drug for sleep
Which 3 drugs do stimulants typically interact with?
1. anti-HTN meds
2. MAOI, linezolid
3. sympathomimetics, caffeine
You recently started your patient on methylphenidate for their ADHD. What do you need to warn the patient/family about regarding potential ADRs?
- **anorexia, wt loss, appetite disturbance
- sleep disturbance
- feeling zombie-like, less spontaneous
The methylphenidate you prescribed is causing too many issues for your patient and you want to take them off. What do you do?
TAPER - important with all stimulants
What monitoring is important for patients who are on stimulants?
Growth rate in children
- s/s of depression, aggression, hostility
- signs of CNS stimulation
Your patient has been diagnosed with ADHD and while doing a thorough family hx, they mention a Fhx of Tourettes. What meds should you avoid?
What are 3 non stimulants for ADHD?
1. Atomoxetine (SNRI)
What drugs should you avoid for patients with atomoxetine?
Which ADHD med has a BBW?
Atomoxetine (SNRI) - suicidal ideation
Which 2 meds for ADHD have interactions with anti-HTN & vasodilators AND additive sedations w/other CNS depressants?
What is the major side effect of Guanfacine?
What is the major side effect of clonidine?
other: irritability, emotional flattening, depression, insomnia, nightmares, withdrawal syndrome