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Flashcards in ADR's Deck (31)
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1

Urticaria (Hives)

Type I

Immune mediated: B lactams

Non-immune: Contrast dye, morphine

2

Angioedema

Type I

ACE-I

3

Anaphylaxis

Type I

B-lactams > FQ's

4

Serum Sickness

Type III

cefaclor & sulfonamides

5

Hypersensitivity
Vasculitis

Type III

B-lactams
sulfonamides

6

Drug-induced exanthems

Type IV
Most common cutaneous drug rxn (maculopapular rash)

B-lactams, sulfonamides

7

Erythroderma, exfoliative dermatitis

Type IV

B-lactams
sulfonamides

8

Steven Johnson Syndrome

TEN

Type IV

MM involvement (oral, conjunctiva, genital)

phenytoin
carbamazepine
lamotrigine
sulfonamides
allopurinol

9

DRESS

Type IV

Eosinophilia

anti-seizure meds (CBZ > VPA, phenytoin, lamotrigine)
sulfonamides
allopurinol

10

Fixed Drug Eruption

Type IV

TMP/SMX
NSAIDS

11

Drug-induced photosensitivity

Rx: Exaggerated sunburn on skin

FQ's
Tetracyclines (doxy)
Amiodarone
Topical retinoids

Tx: sun protection, stop drug, cool compress

12

Drug-induced alopecia

Anagen effluvium:
bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil

Telogen effluvium:
interferons, Li+, isotretinoin, valproate, warfarin

13

Drug-induced melanonychia

AZT, minocycline, chemo

beau's lines: chemo

14

Drug-induced hyperpigmentation

minocycline
amiodarone

15

Esophagitis

Bisphosphonates
Tetracyclines
NSAIDS

Tx: drink full glass of water, don't lie down after med

16

Pancreatitis

Isotretinoin - INC trigs
NRTI's (ddl, D4T) - intrinsic toxicity

PEARL: all statins and most ACEI

17

Liver Injury

MC cause of acute liver failure

APAP (#1)
INH (#2)
PTU (#3)
clavulanate

Pearl: MC reason for drug withdrawal from market

18

Diarrhea

antacids
ABX
PPIs
NSAIDS
caffeine
chemo

19

HTN

INC SBP by 10-20mmHg

stimulants (methylphenidate, cocaine)
transplant meds
corticosteroids
EPO
NSAIDS
sympathomimetics

Tx: d/c drug, lower dose, or add CCB or ACEI/ARB

20

Lipid alterations

Hormones (estrogen, androgens, testosterone)
Glucocorticoids
Transplant meds
Thiazide diuretics
Protease inhibitors
Valproate

21

QT prolongation

5 A's:
anti-arrhythmics
antimicrobials (macrolides, FQ)
anti-psychotics (haloperidol )
antidepressants (TCAs)
antiemetics (promethazine)

Tx: ECG and monitor closely if QT > 500

22

Raynaud's

Triptans/ergots
oral decongestants
caffeine
nicotine
phentermine

23

Edema

DHP CCB's (amlodipine)
Thiazolidinedione's (pioglitazone)
Gabapentin, pregabalin

Tx: lifestyle (reduce Na, elevate legs, exercise, compression stockings)

24

Bronchospasm

B blockers
Cocaine
IV contrast
ASA*/NSAIDs/MDI propellants

Tx: withdrawal, O2, +/- steroids

25

Acute/Subacute Pneumonitis

Days/months post exposure, constitutional symptoms, dyspnea, non-productive cough

Amiodarone

Tx: withdrawal, O2, +/- steroids

26

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Months to years after exposure, insidious DOE, nonproductive cough

Methotrexate
Bleomycin
Nitrofurantoin

Tx: withdrawal, O2, +/- steroids

27

Lupus

F/c, malaise, pleuritis/effusion, pneumonitis, myalgias

Procainamide
Hydralazine
Isoniazid

Tx: withdrawal, O2

28

Pleural Effusion

Methotrexate
Nitrofurantoin
Phenytoin

Tx: none

29

Discoloration of Urine:
1. Yellow-brown
2. Yellow-orange
3. Red-orange/pink
4. Red-brown:
5. Brown-black
6. Blue +/- green

1. Nitrofurantoin, SMX
2. Phenazopyridine, entacapone
3. Rifampin*
4. Warfarin/Heparin (hematuria)*
5. Metronidazole, nitrofurantoin
6. Amitriptyline, Propofol, triamterene

30

Nephrotoxicity
1. Altered intraglomerular hemodynamics*
2. Tubular cell toxicity*
3. Inflammation*
4. Crystal nephropathy
5. Rhabdomyolysis
6. Thrombotic microangiopathy

1. NSAIDs, ACEIs/ARBs
2. Abx (aminoglycosides)
3. Beta lactams (PCN/ampicillin), FQs, NSAIDs, AEDs
4. Acyclovir, triamterene, methotrexate
5. Statins
6. Clopidogrel