Abx "Allergy" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abx "Allergy" Deck (14)
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1

B-lactam Type I

IgE

MC - urticarial

Other: pruritis, angioedema, laryngeal edema, wheezing, SOB, presyncope/syncope, hypotension, CV collapse (anaphylaxis)

2

B-lactam Type II

IgG & C'

Bone marrow suppression

3

B-lactam Type III

AB (IgG & IgM) -Ag complexes

Serum-like sickness

4

B-lactam Type IV

T cell - delayed hypersensitivity

MP rash --> SJS/TEN

5

What is the highest risk for PCN cross-reactivity?

AminoPCNs & Cephalosporins

6

Sulfa hypersensitivity reaction

Usually characterized by fever +/- MP rash that develops w/in 7-14d

IgE (urticaria, anaphylaxis) and other serious rxn (SJS/TEN/DRESS) are uncommon

7

What PCN and cephalosporin are we particularly concerned about regarding drug interaction?

Amoxicillin and Cephalexin

8

If a patient reports an allergy to penicillin and say they got a rash, what can they have? What can they not have?

Use: Ceph, carbapenems, aztreonam if maculopapular
Avoid: PCN

9

If a patient reports an anaphylactic reaction, what can you use? What must you avoid?

Use: aztreonam or non-B-lactam abx
Avoid: PCN, ceph, carbapenems

10

How is a hypersensitivity reaction to sulfa drugs typically characterized?

Fever and/or MP rash that develops within 7-14d

11

You diagnose a patient with HIV. He reports that he had a severe anaphylactic reaction to TMP-SMX in the past. What drug should you avoid in this patient specifically?

Darunavir

12

What are the 3 groups of sulfonamides?

1. Sulfonylarylamines (SMX, HIV PIs like Darunavir)
2. Nonsulfonylarylamines (loops/thiazides, tamsulosin, -triptans)
3. Sulfonamide-moiety containing drugs (AEDs, HCV PIs like semiprevir)

13

T/F: Sulfur, sulfites, and sulfates don't cross-react with sulfonamides

True

14

What cephalosporin is known for causing serum sickness?

Cefaclor