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Flashcards in Ch 20 Deck (30)
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Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan

-US Navy
- laid the foundation for continued expansion (The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1890)
-argued that all great nations in history had great navies that could control the world’s oceans and that the US’s navy needed to be large enough to be a significant player in the Pacific
-age of imperialism


age of imperialism

-when US Navy was expanded to the 3rd largest in the world while the US annexed Hawaii and Puerto Rico in 1898 and assumed control of Samoa, Philippine Islands, and Cuba
-Britain, France, and Germany were seeking new colonies in Africa and the Middle East
-Americans didn't want to be left out



-previously a Russian territory
-tensions with native residents→ Russians exploited Native Alaskans while Western disease took a heavy toll on the native populations
-fur trapping, fishing, whaling
-price = $ 7.2 mill and on Oct 18, 1867, the Russian flag hauled down at Sitka and the American flag rose in it’s place
-gold discovered--> expand america's pop



-location between CA and Japan and it’s harbors that were perfect for American whaling vessels greatly interested American and European merchants and US Navy officers
-harbors= navy ships, US whaling ships
-1820= Americans came to convert Hawaiians
-US control of CA with Pacific harbor in 1848 and completion of the Transcontinental RR in 1869 expanded US commercial and military in Hawaii
-sugar plantations
-native Hawaiians are now a minority
-Americans (Annexation Club) overthrew Queen Lil
-Pres Cleveland would have restored Lil to the throne if she had not said she will execute the rebels


1896 election

-William McKinley
-demonstrated none of Cleveland’s resistance to the US acquisition of Hawaii as the next step in the nation’s Manifest Destiny
-1897= proposed treaty of annexation→ planter gov agreed
-asked both houses of Congress to annex territory by joint-resolution (only required majority vote)
-June 1898= protest of native Hawaiians and cheers of planters; Hawaii became a permanent territory in the US
-Mahan's dreams was a reality


US war with Cuba

- Cuba place rebellious Cubans in concentration camps which caused “yellow journalists” to stir up the American public with stories of horrid Spanish mistreatment of the Cubans.
-direct cause= sinking of the USS Maine
-To prevent Spanish naval reinforcements from the Philippines, the U.S. destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay.
-The Treaty of Paris: U.S. gained Puerto Rico, Guam and for $20 million the Philippines (through the Teller Amendment, the U.S. chose not to annex Cuba)


Anti-Imperialist League

-Carnegie offered to buy the islands to secure independence
-Charles Adams, Thomas Higginson, Jane Addams, Henry Lloyd, Samuel Gompers, William Jennings Bryan etc. oppose annexation


“The Constitution follows the flag”

-- argument that the rights of U.S. citizens should be extended to any people living in a territory conquered by the united states
-advocates for expansion didn’t agree
-1901- Supreme Court rules Philippines and Puerto Rico=territories, not states


The Platt Amendment:

-The U.S. essentially controlled Cuba
-U.S. Senate’s approval of the Philippines’ annexation:
-Insurrection by Emilio Aguinaldo against the U.S./3 years
-U.S. controlled the Philippines until WWII


Roosevelt Corollary

- T.R.’s policy asserting U.S. authority to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations; an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine- to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the U.S. had a right to intervene in any nation in the Americas that couldn’t manage it’s own affairs


TR and the Panama Canal

-T.R.’s greatest interest in Latin America was still building a canal in the territory of Panama, which at the time was part of Colombia
-In November 1903, when Panama revolted against Colombian rule, T.R. sent U.S. navy ships to Panama to prevent the landing of “any armed force with hostile intent”
-Panama declared its independence and the U.S. quickly recognized the independent government and then proposed the canal which they accepted for $10 million
-1914= canal finished


Gentlemen’s Agreement

-TR; 1907
-A diplomatic agreement between U.S. and Japan curtailing, but not abolishing, Japanese immigration


Russia and Japan

-Across the world, Russia had been long expanding its territory but it came to a halt when Japan, now a modern military and diplomatic power, was determined to stop them from conquering Korea and Manchuria
-Japanese fleet attacked/destroyed Russian fleet
-American declared neutrality
-Japanese gov wanted TR to make peace
-he and Russia agreed
-August 1905= reps makes borders, money, and postwar plan
-TR was praised, Nobel prize


Russian immigrants

- had their own grievances against the tsar after hundreds of Russian Jews were killed in pogroms and pressured the U.S. government to do something


Japanese immigrants

- not happy with SF's segregation of Japanese students
-CA was the port of entry for Chinese and Japanese immigrants but it was also where anti-Asian feelings were the strongest


Great White Fleet

-a fleet of 16 battleships sent around the world to Tokyo Bay by T.R. to show American strength and to promote good will
-The ships were white instead of navy grey


Boxer Rebellion

-The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (called Boxers by foreigners), a secret society that consisted of victims of disastrous floods and opium addiction, led the Boxer Rebellion in 1901, attacking all foreigners whom they blamed for their struggles
-It was crushed but Chinese citizens, carrying anti-American signs and singing anti-American songs, organized a massive boycott of U.S. goods in 1905


dollar diplomacy

-the policy of using private investment in other nations to promote American diplomatic goals and business interests


Woodrow Wilson & Mexico:

U.S. role in the resignation of the military dictator, Victoriano Huerta, who was replaced by Venustiano Carranza
-Pancho Villa, revolutionary leader who opposed Carranza, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, resulting in General John Pershing’s failed mission to capture Pancho Villa in 1916


WWI (Great War)

-August 1914
-started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in the town of Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist
-nationalism, militarism, imperialism, the formation of alliances
-Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Turkish Ottoman Empire- known as Central Powers
-Russia, France, and Great Britain- known as Allies
-patriotic fever; thought it would be short
-German army attacked France by moving through neutral Belgium
-allied counter attack
-US neutrality
-Submarine warfare (Lusitania); German U Boats


military tech in WWI

-trench warfare--> rats, rotten food, mud
-New forms of artillery, tanks, flamethrowers, and introduction of mustard gas, caused a never ending wave of death


Herbert Hoover

-organized the Commission for Belgian Relief, which along with the American Red Cross, send aid to people caught in the path of war
-Hoover was known was “Napoleon of mercy” for his efforts


Sedition Act of 1918

-- broad law restricting criticism of America’s involvement in WWI or its govt, flag, military, taxes, or officials


Espionage Act

- law whose vague prohibition against obstructing the nation’s war effort was used to stop dissent and criticism during WWI
-opposition Jane Addams


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

-bc of the Bolshevik Revolution (new gov didn't want to have anything to do with the war)
-ended the war bw Germany and Russia - Germany could now focus exclusively on the western front and attack France


Armistice Day

-Nov 11, 1918, 11 hr of 11 day of 11 month



-The Big Four
-The Fourteen Points
-The League of Nations
-Severe punishment for Germany, particularly the reparations
-Creation of several new countries
-U.S. opposition to the Treaty of Versailles led by Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
-President Wilson’s tour to gain support for the treaty and his massive stroke upon his return to the White House
-The United States NEVER joined the League of Nations


Treaty of Versaille

-rejected by 2 votes


The Big Four

-Prime Ministers David Lloyd George of Great Britain
-Vittorio Orlando of Italy,
-Georges Clemenceau of France
-President Woodrow Wilson.


Fourteen Points

-American insisted on “open covenants of peace, openly arrived at”
-commitment to openness was a mix of Wilson’s idealism and a reaction to the release by the new Russian leader V. I. Lenin of secret agreements negotiated by the czarist government, Britain, and France