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Flashcards in Ch. 11 Deck (17)
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1

Manifest Destiny

- doctrine expressed in 1845 that the expansion of white Americans across the continent was inevitable and ordained by God and was means to spread Protestant Christianity and Jacksonian Democracy to more ppl
-became the core of American belief; justified Louisiana Purchase, acquisition of Oregon Territory; northern half of Mexico including Texas and California,
-no slavery; have to be Roman Catholic
-significant influence across the Pacific Ocean

2

empresario

- agent who received land grant from Spanish/Mexican gov in return for organizing settlements
-Moses Austin

3

californio

-person of Spanish descent after 1821, citizen of Mexico, living in CA

4

gag rule

-A procedural rule passed in the HOR that prevented discussion of antislavery petitions from 1836-1844
-a regulation or directive that prohibits public discussion of a particular matter, in particular

5

Panic of 1837

-initial cause was a sudden drying up of credit
Without ability to borrow money, cotton brokers failed, banks failed, and the NY mercantile house of Arthur Tappan and Company failed
-bank failings, the value of cotton land and slaves plummeting, and thousands of northern factory workers losing their jobs.

6

Specie Circular

-1836, requiring speculators to pay for federal land in silver or gold coinage, not banknotes

7

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

-1842
-resolved the border with Canada as far as west as Minnesota; it also provided closer cooperation in suppressing the African slave trade.
-Tyler supported Webster because he didn’t want problems with Britain when he turned to his real priority-Texas

8

Election of 1844

-Whigs nominated old hero Henry Clay
-Tyler tried for the Dem nomination, but the party spurned him
-Jackson still dominated the Dem Party and wouldn't let Tyler be a candidate and angry at Van Buren for opposing annexation of Texas
-"dark horse" James Polk

9

The US War with Mexico, 1846-1848

-After the annexation of Texas, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the U.S.
-dispute of border between texas and mexico
-Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande which provoked a Mexican attack
-Anti-War figures: Abraham Lincoln & Henry David Thoreau
-September , 1847, Mexico City surrendered to General Winfield Scott after an amphibious landing at Veracruz

10

Bear Flag Revolt

-a revolt led by recent American immigrants who temporarily declared California to be an independent Republic until US forces took control of the territory
-US Navy capture Monterey Bay
-They designed a flag of a large star next to a grizzly bear atop a bottom border stripe and the words “California Republic”. It was a symbol that the new immigrants were bears who came as thieves to take their cattle and land.

11

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

- ended US war with Mexico and granted the US control of all of Texas, New Mexico, and California. (SW)
-The Senate ratified it.
-after= Mexicans in the U.S. who had land could not prove their ownership and thus lost it (problem with getting citizenship)

12

Gadsden Purchase:

-final acquisition of land in the continental US was completed in 1853, sold southern NM and Arizona.

13

Battle of San Jacinto

-The capture of Mexico’s president Santa Anna led to the independence of Mexico in 1836
-for 9 yrs, Texas was an independent republic

14

Election of 1840

-Martin Van Buren dealt with the “rising voice of abolitionism” and the Panic of 1837
-The inability of Van Buren to resolve the nation’s economic policies led to William Henry Harrison and John Tyler winning for the Whig Party in 1840
-Harrison died in a month due to pneumonia

15

Election of 1848

-3 Parties: Whig Zachary Taylor won

16

More Westward Expansion

-1848 gold discovered in California by John Marshall near Sutter’s Fort
-“Gold Rushers” – including Chinese, Californio, and Indian gold rushers
-whaling
-SF= vital port
-1898= annexation of Hawaii
-1853: Commodore Matthew Perry opens Japan to trade

17

Free Soil Party

-former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party
- Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery.