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Flashcards in Ch 18 Deck (32)
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Eugene V Debs

- Socialist party, nominated for presidential candidacy in 1912
goal→ create a party for women and men, blacks and whites, struggling farmers and factory and railroad workers


New South

-Henry Grady
-ideology developed by elite Southerners that declared an end to the nostalgia for slavery and plantation life and an beginning for the economic development of the South while protecting the growing racial segregation of the region from any Northern interference
- South was done with apologizing for Civil War, slavery, and rigid political, social, and economic, segregation
-industrialization in the south


Williams v Mississippi

-US Supreme Court declared poll taxes and literacy tests to be constitutional


newform of violence in late 1800s

- way to strike terror into the black community while asserting and celebrating white dominance


Booker T. Washington

-perhaps the best known African American leader, argued that it was time to adjust to segregation rather than challenge the laws
-urged blacks to create an economic foundation for themselves
-Atlanta Compromise


Atlanta Compromise

-proposal from Washington that blacks remain separate from whites while focusing on economic self-help


The Niagara Movement

- emerged from the conference fought for an end to segregation and for full equality for African-Americans.


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

- fight for full enforcement of the 14th and 15th amendments; bring exposure and legal challenges to lynchings; and begin court challenges to the laws that were the legal foundation for black exclusion.


“the Grange”

-Earliest nationwide farmer organization was the Patrons of Husbandry
-farmers gathered in Grange Hills to celebrate their work and foster a sense of community, but they also organized to deal with the chronic debt and the sense that the nation’s financial arrangements were stacked against them
-organized cooperative buying and selling through their own cotton gins and warehouses


Agricultural Wheel

-By 1885, it had 1,105 local chapters in four states
-became a tough organization that excluded any but working farmers
-used its size to negotiate price reductions with manufacturers of farm implements and got up to 50% reductions of the prices of wagons, buggies, reapers, and mowers, while organizing its own warehouses to hold crops until prices met expectations


Farmers’ Alliance

-began as the Texas Alliance in Lampasas County, Texas, in the 1870s by ranchers who were dealing with issues of communal and private grazing land
-business organization-organizing the farmers (including ranchers) of Texas, and eventually the nation, to use the best of corporate practises to fight with the organizations they saw oppressing them
-Charles W. Macune was elected president
-women too
-Mary Lease


Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Cooperative Union

-had 1.2 million members by 1890
-organized primarily through black churches
-lacked resources to publish own materials or hire lecturers or organizers- never had the clout of the white Alliance


subtreasury system

-a unit Even Macune wanted to have created within the U.S. Department of Treasury that would provide low-interest loans to farmers
-loans would be secured by cotton, wheat, and other staple crops
-subtreasury would protect its investment and support farmers through a federal system of warehouses and grain elevators in 1,000 counties across the country where the gov would ensure minimum prices for crops and hold them until they sold at that price


People’s Party

- also known as the Populist Party
-advocating for many of the reforms to currency and regulation of railroads that the Alliance was wanting


knights of Labor

- founded in 1869 - labor union that included skilled and unskilled workers irrespective of race or gender



-socialists advocated government ownership of the nation’s major industries and a mandate for higher salaries for workers.



-distrusted govt - wanted small, local organizations


Coxey’s Army

-1893-1894 - a protest march of unemployed workers, led by businessman Jacob Coxey, demanding a public works highway program and guaranteed jobs during the depression of the 1890s


United Mine Workers of America

-founded in Columbus, Ohio and called for ensuring miners received a fair share of wealth they created. Open to all races and religions to avoid divisions.


Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies)

-200 delegates gathered in Chicago
-wanted to create “one big union” of all workers no matter what their trade of skill.
-convention adopted a constitution that began, “By organizing industrially we are forming the structure of the new society within the shell of the old.”


Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

- killed 146 workers and was the deadliest industrial catastrophe in Manhattan, which led to new factory inspection and safety laws


Bread and Roses Strike

-mill owners agreed to an increase in salary and no discriminations against strikers


Ludlow Massacre

-brutal working conditions persisted in coal mines owned by John D. Rockefeller
-people voted for a strike demanding recognition for their union, a 10 percent increase in wage, an 8 hr day, the right to elect those who would weigh the coal, free choice stores and doctors and enforcement of Colorado mining laws
-the strike lasted 14 months
-20 ppl killed
-militia troops recruited by coal company surrounded the miners’ cmap @ Ludlow, Colorado
-over 30 people killed
-President Wilson sent US Army troops to restore order


Plessy v Ferguson

-separate but equal


"Lost Cause"

nostalgic homage for the Confederate struggle



urged an end to segregation and discrimination


Election of 1896

-William Jennings Bryan (D) supported the unlimited coinage of silver
-Populists joined with the Democrats and lost to William McKinley(the Gold Bug)
-This loss effectively ended any political power the Populists had because their ideas were adopted by both the Republicans and the Democrats.


The Great Railroad Strike of 1877:

-Marred with violence(rioting and death)
-Federal troops sent by President Rutherford B. Hayes:
-Led to the formation of the National Guard and the rise of labor unions


The American Federation of Labor: (A.F. of L.)

Only skilled laborers for membership
GOALS: wages increases and eight-hour workdays


The Haymarket Riot in Chicago:

A protest for an eight-hour workday
Included many groups(socialists & anarchists)
A bomb was thrown into the ranks of a police force killing several
RESULT: This strike displayed to many that unions would not be looked upon very favorably during the Gilded Age.