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Flashcards in Ch. 14 Deck (22)
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1

Fort Sumter

- patriotic allies in North and South
-lots of men volunteered; they didn’t want to miss out on the fun and glory bc they thought it would be a short, easy won victory
-initial plan=Anaconda Plan(General Winfield Scott) “To squeeze the South into submission”

2

Army of the Potomac

-Lincoln didn't want to make peace but realized this would not be easy
-called for 1 mil new volunteers; fired Generals, reorganized army on maryland-virginia line
-main army for Union

3

Jefferson Davis

-president of Confederacy

4

Union advantages and disadvantages

AD
-strong Navy
-mill railroads
-blockaded southern commerce
-sold war bonds, imposed taxes and issued “greenbacks”
DIS
-Lack of knowledge of germs and infection

5

Confederacy advantages and disadvantages

AD
-southerners used to the outdoors; hunter (could use guns)
generals= went to West point together
stronger navy= advantages on battles in rivers
-ironclad ships (USS Virginia)
DIS
-not lots of finance
-needed money from England but didn't get it
-ppl were starving; women take over men's jobs
-inflation
-food riots

6

Army of Northern Virginia

-confederate army
-south’s elite force led mostly by Robert E Lee; assigned to protect capital of Richmond, Virginia and supply sourced nearby

7

Peninsular Campaign of 1862

McClellan landed troops on the Virginia coast to march up the peninsula to capture Richmond

8

Contrabands:

-name Union generals gave to former slaves who escaped to Union lines and worked in support of Union troops
-there were “contraband camps”, “contraband schools”
-more slaves started to come to Fortress Monroe, called “freedom fort”, Butler’s policy was approved

9

colonization

where free slaves could leave the US for Central America or Africa

10

Lincoln's goal

-stop slavery from spreading
-bring Union back together

11

Emancipation Proclamation

-directed at building Northern support (especially black and abolitionist support)
-freed all slaves in the Confederate areas, the government had no power in areas that were not under Union control
-proclamation resolved issue of contraband slaves and made abolishing slavery a military goal
-didn't actually free any slaves
-slaves could not legally join the army
-54th Mass

12

Peace Democrats

-advocating immediate peace with the Confederacy on terms that would allow it to leave the Union
- attacked republicans because Emancipation Proclamation was widening the purpose of war

13

Militia Act of 1862

-set pay of black soldiers at the level of military laborers. Black soldiers demanded equal pay. Soldiers in the regiments refused to accept any pay until it was raised to that of white soldiers.
-Congress provided equal pay and enlistment bounties for blacks and whites. Blacks also had equal rights in military courts and rights to testify in trials. Blacks were promoted to officer ranks.

14

Internal Revenue Service

was created to collect federal taxes in support of the war effort

15

“greenbacks”

-Fed gov started issuing fed notes that were secured not by gold or silver by the government’s promise to redeem them.
-green ink
-declared war on legal tender, which meant that no one could refuse them as payment for goods or debts.
-resulted in the creation of a solid monetary system

16

New York Draft Riot

-result of Draft/Enrollment Act
-military draft
-In NYC on July 13, mobs attacked the draft offices and then turned on black neighborhoods, Republican newspapers, and gov offices
-105 ppl killed
-worst riot in american history

17

Battle of Gettysburg

-turning point
-On July 1, Confederate forces drove Union troops out of the town and onto Cemetery Hill
-Lee ordered an attack but Union did not fall
-Lee retreated back to Virginia
-23,000 N soldiers killed/wounded
-28,000 S soldiers Killed/wounded

18

Appomattox

-By March 1865, Lee knew his army could not stay in Petersburg which left Richmond for attack
-April= The morning after the Confederates left, the Union army marched into Richmond, not to burn the city, but the put out the fires the retreating army had started
-Grant wrote terms of surrender
-13th amendement= no slavery

19

Battle at Vicksburg

- Grant surrounded the city and starved it.
-After holding on for a year, on July 4, 1863, the Confederate forces at Vicksburg surrendered
-The entire Mississippi river was now under Union control
-Lincoln made Grant General-in-Chief of all Union armies

20

Sanitary Commission

-Created in 1861 to improve the medical services and treatment for the sick and wounded Union soldiers during the course of the war- with widespread support and it flourished
-Elizabeth Blackwell= the first American women M.D
-Dorothea Dix was named “Superintendent of Female Nurses”
-Clara Barton helped create the American Red Cross and many other women including herself became free-agent nurses

21

Battle of Shiloh

-General Ulysses S. Grant won the Battle of Shiloh in 1862
Which meant that the war would be long and dreadful

22

Sherman's March to the Sea??

-decided to cut his troops from supplies and live off the land to march to the heart of the Confederacy
-On November 15, he started his “march to the sea”, destroying everything they the army could not eat or use in their path
-frighten Georgia’s civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause
-forage--> stole food, livestock and burned houses and barns of ppl who fought back