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Flashcards in Ch. 15 Deck (27)
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1

Radical Republican

-“the Radicals”, determined that the North's victory in the Civil War meant that the country should formally give enslaved ppl their freedom and right to vote and hold office
-former slaves should be given all the rights of white Americans

2

Freedmen’s Bureau

- proposed by Lincoln, established by Congress in 1865 to provide social, educational, and economic services as well as advice and protection to former slaves

3

Presidential Reconstructions

- first period 1865-66, President Johnson sought to return states to their prewar status with only slavery being abolished (full states rights to Confederate states)

4

Congressional Reconstuction

-2nd period, 1867-77; Radical Reconstruction, began when Congress began to challenge Johnson from 1867 through the end of Grant’s 2 terms in 1877

5

"Redemption"

-3rd period, began with election of Rutherford B Hayes in 1876
-involved the withdrawal of federal troops from the South as well as the return of white only govnts]
-virtual disenfranchisement of blackes in south

6

Black Code

- passed by states in the South; legally deny rights of citizenship to free blacks and to control black labor, mobility, and employment
-illegal for blacks to hunt, fish, free graze livestock
-illegal for African Americans to own guns or highly taxes guns
-police patrols to enforce law→ terrorized blacks, especially those who refused to sign a long term labor contract with former slave masters
-similar to slavery

7

Union League

- a Republican Party organization led by African-Americans, and which became a base for political action and mutual support
-Former slaves became political leaders
-James H Jones, former servant to Jefferson Davis, became a featured speaker at Republican meetings

8

sharecropping

- former slaves worked as independent entrepreneurs who were guaranteed a share of the crop in return for their labor.

9

scalawags

-A disparaging term for southern whites who supported the Southern Republican Party during Reconstruction

10

carpetbaggers

- term used by white southerners for Northern transplants who came to the South to help with Reconstruction- because they were thought to carry all of their stuff in one bag

11

The Ku Klux Klan

-one of the several vigilante groups that terrorized black people in the South during Reconstruction Era, founded by Confederate veterans in 1866
-Turned into the largest of several secret violent organizations bent on ensuring a reign of terror against not only Republican leaders but blacks in general
-By intimidation and violence, they were sure they could return the the South to its pre-war ways

12

Jim Crow

-segregation laws that became widespread in the South during the 1890s, named for a minstrel show character portrayed satirically by white actors in blackface- developed
-Schools, public facilities and transportation were segregated and blacks were marginalized economically so that sharecropping became the only option for most

13

Plessy v. Ferguson

-supreme court decision in 1896
-“separate but equal” facilities were acceptable under the Constitution

14

issues after the Civil War

-whether former slaver should have the right to vote
-what to do with the southern states

15

Andrew Johnson

-cared little for the equality of the former slaves
-issued many pardons to ex-Confederates

16

Charles Sumner

-one of the leaders of Radical Republicans

17

Thaddeus Steves

-Pennsylvania congressman
-one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans

18

Civil Rights Bill of 1866:

-Proposed by Lyman Trumbull
-would have given citizenship to all persons born in the U.S. except Indians citizenship, but it was vetoed by President Johnson
-congress overrode his vetoes

19

14th Amendment

-ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed

20

Reconstruction Act of 1867

-Creation of five military districts to ensure the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment

21

Tenure of Office Act and the impeachment trial

-federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate
-enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson

22

Ulysses S Grant

-elected in 1868
-???

23

15th Amendment

-granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

24

Hiram Revel

-first African American to serve in the US Senate in 1879

25

Impact of the Reconstruction

-Hiram Revel
-22 blacks served in Congress
-The Freemen’s Bureau played a critical role in providing teachers.
-“40 Acres and a Mule” Program
-Sharecropping: the new southern economic arrangement
-Landowners created a system of debt that entangled sharecroppers could never escape.

26

Enforcement Acts

-three bills passed by the United States Congress between 1870 and 1871.
-They were criminal codes which protected African-Americans' right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.

27

The Election of 1876:

-Compromise= Rutherford B. Hayes became president in return he would end Reconstruction and remove all federal troops from the South.