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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Deck (22)
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The Newburgh Conspiracy

-Soldiers’ frustration due to no money.
-The army at Newburgh asked the new government for money.
-A rift in Congress over the issue of revenue. Officers demanded a quicker response.
-Washington was worried about the threat of a coup d’etat, but the officers receiving funds averted a coup.


Shay's Rebellion

-Cause: financial hardship for former soldier/farmers and the Massachusetts legislature refused to provide funds.
-Daniel Shays led armed farmers and shut down the courts to stop foreclosures in 1786
-Aim: to overthrow the state government
- Massachusetts state militia suppressed the revolt
- Result: The rebellion terrified the elite of the nation and led to the call for a stronger national government to maintain law and order.


new slave states



Joseph Brant

-organized a confederation of tribes and led a violend resistance against white settlement


Republican Motherhood

- belief that women should have more rights and a better education than they might support husbands and raise sons who would actively participate in the political affairs of society
-With a special type of education, mothers could influence their husbands and sons to be active citizens.
-private Academies


why write the US Constitution

create a more perfect union


Annapolis Convention

-5 states
-led to the call for a meeting for another convention at philadelphia in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation


Constitutional Convention

-All except Rhode Island
-Those absent: T.J., J. Adams, S. Adams & Patrick Henry
- February 1787, Congress agreed to call a convention made up of 55 white men who gathered in what was later called Independence Hall
-propose amendments of the articles of confederation


Virginia Plan

-the first outline of the new constitution
-New Congress with 2 houses, whose members would be elected based on proportional representation reflecting the population of the states, would replace current Congress.
-Would represent the people, not necessarily 13 equal states.
-The Congress would have the power to levy taxes, regulate interstate commerce, and veto state laws.
-Proposed creating a “national executive” and judiciary, or a set of federal courts.


New Jersey Plan

-proposal for the structure of the US gov
-William Paterson
- where both houses of Congress would be elected by states, with equal size delegations for every state


Great Compromise/Connecticut Plan

-agreement during Constitutional Convention
- a national bicameral legislature in which all states would be equally represented in the Senate and proportionally represented in the House


Three-fifths clause

- provided that if taxes were ever levied on the states according to population, slaves would be counted on a three-fifths basis for determining how much taxes the states would pay


Ratification process

-: starting in September of 1787


Electoral College

-a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.


Anti- Federalists

-opposed the Constitution
-worried that national government would destroy rights of the sovereign states and freedom of individual
-Constitution lacked Bill of Rights
-Richard Henry Lee: worried that new government would be created and dominated by monarchy men, military men, aristocrats, and drones
-states rights



- supporters of the Constitution
-had specific document/arguments to plan the improvement of the government
-addressed the fears of the people


Northwest Ordinance of 1787

-legislation passed by Congress under Articles of Confederation that provided for public schools, sale of govt. land, and prohibited slavery in NW territories
religious freedom


Treaty of Fort Stanwix

- 1784; faction of Iroquois and US gov; sought to end violent battles over land in NY, Penn, and Ohio River Valley to W
-did not hold


separation of powers

-(government would always have authority limited by other parts


proportional representation

-a way of selecting representatives in Congress based on the total population of a state, as opposed to having each state received equal votes in Congress



-a system of government in which power is clearly divided between state governments and the national-or federal-government


The Federalist papers

-: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay – “Federalists”