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Flashcards in Ch. 9 Deck (23)
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1

Eli Whitney

-cotton gin
-interchangeable parts

2

cotton gin

-sped the cleaning of green seed cotton; inexpensive processing
-first tried to pull cotton through a screen → wooden teeth were too brittle→ replaced with wire and a brush (keeps seeds from clogging the machine)
-could clean 50 lbs of cotton in 1 day

3

the black-belt

- named for its rich soil
- along Atlantic Coast, on the Sea Islands off the coast of the Carolinas and Georgia; greatest cotton production involved with the green seed variety

4

Erie Canal

-opened up New York City to the whole Ohio Valley.
-NYC became the commercial capital of the nation.
-Canal reduced shipping costs and connected isolated farmers

5

Era of Good Feelings

-the period from 1817 to 1823 (James Monroe’s two terms as president) in which the decline of the Federalists (after War or 1812) enabled the Democratic-Republicans to govern in spirit of seemingly nonpartisan way
-Republicans had no opposing political party to contend with, but political tensions still existed
-disappearance of Federalists after the War of 1812

6

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

-the state ruled that state charters were contracts which once agreed to, were inviolable
-This case was important because it asserted the right of the Supreme Court to review the actions of state legislatures, not just Congress and the inviolability of contracts

7

McCulloch v. Maryland

-the Supreme Court declared that states could not interfere with the workings of the federal government
-Had to do with Bank of U.S.- can’t mess w/it

8

Gibbons vs. Ogden

-Supreme Court/Fed. Govt. has right to regulate interstate commerce

9

The Missouri Compromise

- a compromise in Congress in 1820 that admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine (originally part of Massachusetts) as a free state as well as prohibited slavery in the rest of Louisiana Purchase territory above 36:30 north latitude- passed Congress
-Henry Clay would become known as the “great compromiser”

10

American system

-Henry Clay
-high protective tariffs, internal improvements
-he thought it would reduce poverty by linking all Americans(white) in a prosperous commercial environments
system was american because it made the federal government an agent of economic development
protect infant american industries through a strong tariff that would allow them to develop and thus reduce american independence on cheaper foreign imports
-he thought it would reduce poverty by linking all Americans(white) in a prosperous commercial environments
-system was american because it made the federal government an agent of economic development
-protect infant american industries through a strong tariff that would allow them to develop and thus reduce american independence on cheaper foreign imports

11

Whig Party

-“Adams men” started to call themselves National Republicans-Democratic Republicans who supported the national administration led by President Adams→the group, led mostly by Clay, would become the core of the Whig party
-advocated for a strong national government role in economy internal improvements(roads, canals), and social reform movements in general
-South not excited- if they were, might have had more railroad lines

12

Democratic Party

-Soon, Jacksonians dropped “Republicans,” and were simply known as Democrats, forerunners of the Democratic Party
-favored states rights and limited role for the fed. gov, especially in economic affairs

13

mills

-The North and England purchased cotton for textile production.
Francis Lowell created his mill from memory and created a corporation to manufacture cloth on a large scale

14

Lowell Mill

-hired single young women, “factory girls,” who lived in boarding houses and were given religious instruction and educational activities.

15

NYC

-center of shipment of cotton to England. English goods would be sent back to NYC for distribution.

16

Black Ball Line

-passenger line
-established a fixed schedule of departures from new York to Liverpool and the packet ships of this line delivered U.S. mail.

17

Panic of 1819

-Resulted from less demand for American farm Products in Europe
-The interconnection between the north and the south and the policies of the Bank of the United States led this crisis to be a national affair.

18

Robert Fulton

-created steamboat (Clermont)
-, increased the speed of shipping goods and allowed for shipping to move in more than one direction

19

National Road

-connected Maryland to Illinois.
-important role in establishing a national economy
-Improved transportation allowed for new to travel more quickly and extensively.
-Newspapers became more accessible to more Americans.

20

Rip Van Winkle

-encompasses the changes made to the economy and society decades after the American Revolution and the life of Ichabod Washburn displayed the impact the rise of an internationally connected economy can have on a simple business.

21

Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Marshall

-expanded the power and role of the federal government taking power away from the states.
- Dartmouth College v. Woodward
-McCulloch v. Maryland
-Gibbons v. Ogden

22

Election of 1824

-candidates:
-William Crawford(stroke)
-John Quincy Adams
-John C. Calhoun(dropped out)
-Andrew Jackson – won popular vote
-Run off into the House of Representatives
-Henry Clay was Speaker of the House
-JQA won the presidency
-Henry Clay named Secretary of State
-“CORRUPT BARGAIN” – Jackson bitter (Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state)

23

Election of 1828

-Andrew Jackson won
-"Intense mudslinging”
-Splintered the Democratic-Republican Party