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Flashcards in Ch. 10 Deck (15)
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“spoils system”

-way of selecting ppl for the gov jobs based on the idea that to the victor belongs the spoils
-patronage system in which a victorious political party rewards a candidate's supporters with gov jobs
-rotation in office; experienced officials got fired→ serviced deteriorated
-also made the Kitchen Cabinet



-right to declare that specific fed leg was null and void within it’s borders)


Five Civilized Tribes

-Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, Seminoles
-lived in Old SW (Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia)
-traded and fought with Spanish, French, and English
-adopted white ways and customs; married whites; culture based on farming and trade
-most sophisticated political, economic, and cultural institutions
-expected to the treated as a sovreign country


Indian Removal Act

-1830; “protect” Cherokees from Georgia laws (force them to move west)
-provided funds for removing and resettling easter Indians in the West
-if they stay in Georgia, they have to be subject to Georgia law (indians would not own property, vote, testify, or obtain credit)
-granted president the authority to use force if necessary
-resulted in the involuntary transfer of 1000s of Native Americans to new homes in Oklahoma
-opposition--> Catharine Beecher; Henry Clay; Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of NJ


Cherokee Nation v Georgia and Worcester v Georgia

-1831 and 1832; US Supreme Court, under John Marshall, ruled that the Cherokee were a” domestic dependent nation” and could not be forced by the state of Georgia to give up land that treaty rights agreed to by the US gov had given them
-Jackson ignored the court;....”John Marshall has made his decision, not let him enforce it”


Andrew Jackson

-agenda= destroy national bank; force Indians out of lands; lead modest gov


Trail of Tears

-1838-1839: 12,000 Cherokees forced West to allotted Native territory bc they challenged the removal
-from Georgia to Western Territory
-thousands die
-Chickasaws go willingly
-Florida Seminoles leave and stay, causing the 2nd Seminole War in 1842


Tariff of Abominations

-raised the price of products than many Americans bought from foreign sources and that angered the cotton mill owners who originally wanted the tariff but now saw the protection of their industry disappear


Second Bank of the US

-Major opposition
-Viewed as a benefit to the commercial elite
-1832 Nicholas Biddle attempted to renew the charter of the bank
-Jackson veto
-Transferal of federal revenue to state banks
-Nicholas Biddle= president of the Bank


Nullification Crisis

-Source: rivalry between Jackson and Calhoun
-1828 Calhoun: supporter of states’ rights
-South Carolina feared the abolishment of slavery
-S.C. argued states had the right to decide the constitutionality of a law
-Concept of “nullify” any law deemed detrimental
-1828 Tariff of Abominations the fear that it would devastate the economic livelihood of southern states
-Jackson “the union, it must be preserved”
-S.C. voted to nullify the tariffs of 1828 in 1832


Second Great Awakening

-NY Charles G Finney (join churches and reform mov)
-NE Lyman Beecher (revival and moral reforms)
-Beecher’s goal: to guild a Protestant culture to reinforce Protestant beliefs and practices
-Beecher helped form interdenominational organizations that distributed Bibles and provided Sunday School curriculum
-women encourage to be involved
-support abolition of slavery


Second Great Awakening Reform Movements

-Prisons – reform criminals to return as productive citizens
-Dorothea Dix – humane treatment of mentally ill
-The Shakers: a life of celibacy
-The Oneida Community: sex viewed as a gift to share
-Joseph Smith= Mormonism; represent rebirth of true Christianity
-Brigham Young led his followers to the Mexican territory of Utah
-Mormonism’s controversy: Polygamy was allowed until 1890 – which delayed Utah statehood



-search for direct experience with the divine
-Ralph Waldo Emerson
-George Ripley


Education Reform

-Mount Holyoke College founded to encourage women to become teachers
-Horace Mann


Horace Mann

-State Board of Education in Massachusetts
-School Standards in Massachusetts
-Opposition from Jackson’s supporters and Catholics
-McGuffey’s Reader= its first textbook
-helped pass the bill through the MA legislature that created a state Board of Education in which he became the secretary
-wanted better education for children, more money for schools and salaries, and taxes to be paid to support schools