Flashcards in Night Preparations Deck (14)
What is the function of the cones and where are they located in the eye?
The cones are used to detect color, detail and far away objects and are located in the center of the retina and the back of the eye. They are less sensitive to the light, require higher levels of intensity to become active and are most useful in daylight hours.
What is the function of the rods and where are they located in the eye?
Rods are located in the back of the eye or retina. The rods function when something is seen out of the corner of the eye or peripheral vision. They detect objects, particularly those that are moving. The process of night vision is placed almost entirely on the rods.
When approaching a well-lit runway surrounded by a dark area with little or no features, what illusion should a pilot be alert for?
Featureless terrain illusion - an absence of ground features, as when landing over water, darkened areas, and terrain made featureless by snow, can create the illusion that the aircraft is higher than it actually is. This will cause the pilot to fly a lower approach.
What can a pilot do to improve the effectiveness of vision at night?
a) adapt the eyes to darkness prior to flight 30 minutes before departure.
b) Use oxygen if available
c) close one eye when exposed to a bright light
d) love eyes more slowly than daylight
e) blink eyes if they become blurred
f) concentrate on seeing objects
g) force eyes to view of center
h) maintain good physical condition
i) avoid smoking, drinking
Explain the arrangement and interpretation of the position light on an aircraft.
Red light on the left wingtip, green light on the right wingtip, white on the tail. If both a red and green light of another aircraft are observed, and the red light is on the left and green to the right, the airplane is flying in the same direction. If red were on the right and green to the left, the airplane could be on a collision course.
Position lights are required to be on from sunset to sunrise
What are Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)?
REIL's are installed at many airfields to provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of a particular runway.
Describe a Runway Edge Light System
Runway edge lights are used to outline the edges of runways during periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions. They are white except on instrument runways yellow replaces white on the last 2000 ft to form a caution zone.
HIRL - High Intensity Runway Lights
MIRL - Medium Intensity Runway Lights
LIRL - Light Intensity Runway Lights
Describe a Runway Centerline Lighting System
Runway centerline lights - installed on some precision approach runways to facilitate landing under adverse visibility conditions. They are located along the runway centerline and are spaced at 50ft intervals. The centerline lights are white for the first 3000 ft, The lights begin to alternate between white and red for the next 2000 ft and then all red for the last 1000 ft of the runway.
What are Touchdown Zone Landing Lights (TDLZ)?
Burning white lights that start at 100 ft beyond the landing threshold and extend to 3000 ft beyond the landing threshold or to the midpoint of the runway.
Describe several different types of taxiway lighting
a) Taxiway edge lights - outline the edges of taxiways. BLUE lights
b) Taxiway centerline lights - steady burning GREEN lights
c) Clearance bar lights - installed at holding positions on taxiways. Steady burning YELLOW lights
d) Runway guard lights - installed at taxiway/runway intersections. Could be a pair of elevated flashing lights on either side of taxiway or an in-pavement lights installed across the taxiway.
e) Stop bar lights - used to confirm ATC clearance to enter or cross an active runway in low visibility conditions. The are a row of RED, unidirectional lights installed across the taxiway and a pair of elevated steady burning red lights on each side.
What are the different types of rotating beacons used t identify airports?
a) White and green - lighted land airport
b) Green alone - lighted land airport
c) White and Yellow - Lighted water airport
d) Yellow alone - lighted water airport
e) Green, Yellow, and White - lighted heliport
f) White(dual peaked and green) - Lighted military airport
Describe several types of obstruction lighting
a) Aviation red obstruction lights - flashing aviation red beacons and steady burning aviation red lights during nighttime operations.
b) Medium and high intensity white obstruction lights - may be used during daytime and twilight with reduced intensity for nighttime operation. Normally on structures less than 200ft
c) Dual lighting - combo of red and white lights
d) Catenary lighting - medium and high intensity flashing white markers for high voltage transmission lines and support structures.
How does a pilot determine the status of a light system at an airport?
The pilot needs to check the Chart Supplement US and any NOTAMS to find out.