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Flashcards in Navigation Deck (13)
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What are three common ways to navigate?

a) Pilotage
b) Dead reckoning
c) Radio navigation


What types of aeronautical charts are available for use in VFR navigation?

a) Sectional charts (1 inch = 7 miles)
b) VFR Terminal charts
c) VFR Flyway planning charts


What is an "isogonic" line?

They are shown on sectional charts as broken magenta lines. Isogonic lines connect points of equal magnetic variation. They show the amount and direction of magnetic variation, which from time to time may vary.


What is "magnetic variation"?

Variation is the angle between true north and magnetic north. It is expressed as east variation or west variation depending upon whether magnetic north (MN) is to the east or west of true north (TN).


How do you convert a true direction to a magnetic direction?

If the variation is west, add. If the variation is east, subtract. East is least, west is best.


What are lines of latitude and longitude?

Circles parallel to the equator (lines running east/west), parallels of latitude, enable us to measure distance in degrees latitude north or south of the equator.

Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South pole and are at right angles to the equator. The "Prime Meridian" which passes through Greenwich, England is used as zero line from which measurements are made in degrees east and west to 180 degrees.


What is "magnetic deviation"?

Because of magnetic influences within the airplane itself (electrical circuits, radios, lights, tools, engine, etc) the compass needle is frequently deflected from its normal reading. This deflection is called deviation. The deviation value may be found on the deviation card located in the airplane.


Name some navigational aids

a) VOR (Very High Omnidirectional Range)
b) VORTAC (VHF Omnidirectional Range/Tactical Air Navigation)
c) DME (Distance Measuring Equip)
d) RNAV (Area Navigation) includes INS, VOR/DME-referenced, GPS


What is a VOR and VORTAC?

VOR's are VHF radio stations that project radials in all directions like spokes of a bike hub. Each of these radials is denoted by its outbound magnetic direction. Almost all VOR stations will also be VORTACS. A VORTAC provides the standard bearing info of a VOR plus distance info to pilots who have DMEs.


What is a VOR radial?

A "radial" is defined as a line of magnetic bearing extending from the omnidirectional range VOR. There are 360 radials FROM the station. TO the station are bearings. VOR's are line of sight and altitude limited.


What is a DME?

Distance Measuring Equipment used to measure, in nautical miles, the slant range distance of the aircraft from the DME navigational aid.


Give a brief explanation of GPS

Global Positioning System is a satellite based radio navigation system that broad casts a signal used by receivers to determine a precise position anywhere in the world.


Define the term VFR waypoint

VFR waypoints provide pilots with a supplementary tool to assist position awareness while navigating visually in an aircraft equipped with area navigation receivers (GPS). They provide navigational aids for pilots unfamiliar with the area. The VFR waypoint names consist of a five letter identifier beginning with "VP" and are retrievable from navigational databases.