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Define the term Aeronautical Decision Making.

Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) is a systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best of action in response to a given set of circumstances.


Explain the basic steps in the decision making process

a) Define the problem
b) Choose a course of action
c) Implement the decision
d) Evaluate the outcome


What two models are commonly used when practicing aeronautical decision making?

The DECIDE model and the 3P model


The DECIDE model of decision making involves which elements?

D etect a change needing attention
E stimate the need to counter or react to a change
C hoose the most desirable outcome for the flight
I dentify actions to successfully control the change
D o something to adapt to the change
E valuate the effect of the action countering the change


What is the 3P model of Aeronautical Decision Making?

PERCEIVE hazards
PROCESS to evaluate level of risk
PERFORM risk management

PERCEIVE: The goal is to identify hazards, which are events, objects, or circumstances that could contribute to an undesired event. You need to consider hazards associated with: PAVE
External Pressures.

PROCESS: Ask questions to determine what can hurt you. In short, why do you have to CARE about these hazards? What are the Consequences? What are the Alternatives available to me? What is the Reality of the situation facing me? What kind of External pressures may affect my thinking?

PERFORM: Change the situation in your favor. Your objective is to make sure the hazard does not hurt ME or my loved ones, so work to Mitigate or eliminate the risk, and Evaluate the outcome of your actions.


Name five hazardous attitudes that can affect a pilots ability to make sound decisions and properly exercise authority?

a) Anti-authority - follow the rules they are usually right
b) Impulsivity - Think first, not so fast
c) Invulnerability - it could happen to me
d) Macho - taking chances is foolish
e) Resignation - I can make a difference, I'm not helpless


What is the first step towards neutralizing a hazardous attitude?

Recognition of hazardous thoughts is the first step toward neutralizing them. After recognizing a thought as hazardous, the pilot should label it as hazardous and then state the corresponding antidote. Antidotes should be memorized for each of the attitudes so they automatically come to mind when needed.