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Flashcards in RTS - SKIN PART 2 Deck (46)
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What is acne vulgarisms?

chronic skin condition - blockage/inflammation of hair follicles accompanying sebaceous glands
Present with non inflammatory, inflammatory lesions or a mixture


what are the symptoms of acne? i.e the different types of spots (6)

Blackheads (open comedones) - follicles that have a wide opening, filled with plugs of sebum
-White heads (closed comedones)- smaller opening and have same materials as blackheads, white
- Papules - small red bumps - sore
- Pastules - white tip at centre caused by build up of pus
- Nodules - large hard lumps hat build up beneath surface
- cysts- most severe type of spot- large puss filled lumps- greatest risk of scarring


Treatments for acne

1. topical
2. POM treatments e.g topical retinoids, topical antibiotics, azelaic acid, combined pill, antibiotic tabs

3. Benzoyl peroxide - Quinoderm 10


describe benzoyl peroxide as treatment for acne
Include cautions & SE

prevents dead skin clogging up hair follicles, kills bacteria on the skin
- cream/gel
- apply one or twice daily 20 mins after washing face

Cautions - apply sparingly, use UV protection, has a bleaching effect

SE - dry sin, burning, itching, stinging, redness, skin peeling


Name and describe the 3 types of acne scars

1. Ice pick - small deep holes that looks like skin is punctured

2. Rolling scars - bands of scar tissue form under the skin - uneven appearance

3. boxcar scars - round or oval depressions or craters


Lifestyle advice for acne

- wash affected areas with mild cleanser and Luke warm water
- dont squeeze
- avoid too much make up and use water based products described as 'non comedogenic'
- remove stress factors
- if dry skin- fragrance free moisturisers, water based emollient
- Wash hair regularly, keep off face


what is rosacea?

relapsing condition, exact cause unknown. Affects people with fair skin and generally ages 30-50


symptoms of rosacea?

flushing, facial redness, visible blood vessels,
thickened skin
sensitive - burn, itching
papules an dpastules
raised red patches


common triggers of rosacea

exposure to sunlight
hot or cold weather
foods e.g spicy
medication - corticosteroids, amidarone


treatments of rosacea

No treatment is available OTC.
(a) self care
(b) medications - can get oral antibiotics or topical metronidazole, azelaic acid


lifestyle advice for patients with rosacea

(a) sun - always wear sunscreen min spf30, UVA and UVB
(b) stress - relaxation, exercise
(c) foods - stop alcohol an spicy foods, and see what causes skin to flare up in a food diary
(d) cold weather- protect face, e.g scarf

Also use skincare techniques like acne


what is a cold sore?

Small blisters form around lips/mouth and caused by herpes simplex virus, clears up without treatment in 7-10 days. It is very contagious


symptoms of cold sores/

Initially asymptomatic but then in recurring infections there is initial tingling, burning, followed by fluid filled sores, pain, oozing, scabbing
they grow in size


lifestyle advice for cold sores

wash hands
avoid touching eyes, kissing, oral
- avoid picking the scabs
- avoid sharing medicaiton/cutlery etc
- change cosmetics
- remove the trigger


Red flags for cold sores

- treatment failure
- patients with weakened immune system
- dehydration, especially children
- spread of infection to mouth, eyes or genitals
- >10 days
- large numbers of them
- babies /young


treatments for cold sores

(a) do nothing - OTc for cold sores and additional symptoms - many go away on own
(b) antiviral - acyclovir (Zovirax) - helps speed healing time,, apply at first signs of cold sore and stops it spreading
(c) for the pain - para/ibu


What is impetigo?

Common and contagious. Causes sores and blisters. 2 types
(1) - non bullous - skin around nose and mouth, sores burst leaving a yellow brown crust
(2) bullous - skin on the trunk, fluid filled blisters, they burst leaving a yellow crust


what are causes of impetigo?

skin becomes infected with - staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes
- A break in the skin (primary impetigo) - stings,bites, cuts
-Skin Damaged by another condition (secondary)- head lice, scabies, eczema


who is at risk of impetigo?

carrier of staph.aureus
warm weather
weak immune s


Symptoms of impetigo

Most people - non bullous.
- red sores
-sores burst- thick crusts
- red marks where crusts dry
- itchy


Referral for impetigo?

Most cases heal within 14-21 days without treatment, however always must see the GP.
This is because the infection is easily spread and treatments can resolve it quicker


What is athletes foot?

Tinea pedis. It loves warm, moist, airless conditions - anyone can get it but more common in people who sweat more, wear shoes and socks that make their feet sweatier
- it is passed on from person to person
- once a small patch develops - spreads


Symptoms of athletes foot

rash, itchiness, cracks, scaling, sore, dry


what are treatments for athletes foot (5 types)

Topical antifungals (lots of preparations) - continue for 14 days after rash has gone in some cases to prevent re-infection and ensure its fully healed

1. azoles - clotrimazole, ketoocnazole, micronazole - canesten, daktarin

2. Terbinafine - lamisil
3. tolnaftate - mycil
4. griseofulvin - grisol
5. corticosteroids - canestro HC (own license - anti fungal with steroid hydrocortisone)


Red flags for athlete foot

- treatment failure
- diabetics - any foot or hand complaint for any diabetic refer
- signs of bacterial infection - ooze, puss
- nails infected
- pregnancy//BF


causes of nail infections

- fungal infection
- damage to nail
- fungal infections e.g athletes foot, not fully healed?
- wet hands, diabetes, psoriasis, nail biting, weak immune system,humidity, artificial nails


symptoms of nail infections

nail thickened and discoloured, pain, brittle, skin is inflamed, patches on nailbed


treatments for nail infections

may not be necessary but GP must decide. Could just use self care and OTC methods.
- Nail paints can penetrate the nail but this treatment is SLOW - 6-12 months but toes can be 9-12 months.
- Treatment application is dependent on product- some are once weekly
- examples: Scholl, canespro, curanail


red flags for nail infections

treatment failure - but remember the timeframe
more than 2 nails infected


lifestyle advice for nail infections

- keep feet cool and dry, clean socks
- avoid trainers
- treat other infections
- keep nails short, use separate clippers
- well fitting shoes that mould feet
- good hygiene
- see a podiatrist