Flashcards in RTS - respiratory conditions Deck (31)
what is a cold?
viral, associated with the upper respiratory tract
transmitted via droplets and is very contagious & common.
- aches and pains
- running nose or blocked
- sore throat
- mild to moderate hacking cough
what is the flu?
viral, the whole respiratory tract - 3 types of myxovirus - A.B,C
- there is a vaccine for it
transmitted via droplet inhalation
- prominent headache
- sudden onset of temperature for 3-4 days
- severe aches and pains
- extreme fatigue and weakness
- severe cough
- chest discomfort
how long do colds and flu last?
Colds- 4-7 days
Flu- 2-3 weeks
referral / red flag symptoms of respiratory/flu/cold
chest pain - especially if down the arm
shortness of breath - asthma?
nature of sputum - blood, green, brown, red (red brown indicates pneumonia)
stiff neck/non blanching rash
symptomatic treatment for col and flu symptoms - congestion, runny nose
congestion - steam inahaltion (bowl, boiling water, towel & menthol)
- inahalants, nasal sprays, decongestants e.g pseudoephedrine
runny nose: antihistamines
treatment for cold and flu symptoms - tickly/sore throat, pyrexia and cough
throat - lozenges, throat spray (numbs area so be careful), honey and lemon tea
pyrexia - paracetamol or ibuprofen
cough - cough mixtures, combination products
what are the restrictions on the sale of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine?
what brand is this?
there are limits as they can be used to manufacture crystal meth.
- Pseudeoephedrine max OTC = 720mg
- Ephedrine max OTC = 180mg
Brand = sudafed.
largest pack size of sudafed tablets if each one contains 16mg is 12 packs
lifestyle advice for cold and flu
- explain it is caused by a virus - symptoms should improve within 10 or so days
- rest, keep warm, plenty of fluids
- vitamins, zinc, menthol
- high risk groups = influenza vaccine
- treat symptoms
what is a sore throat?
associated with cold and flu but can occur alone.Mostly viral infections and self limiting 7-10 days.
If its bacterial MUST refer
what medication can cause a sore throat?
steroid inhalers - if not using them properly then it could lead to oral thrush - must check they are using correct and rinsing mouth afterwards
referral or red flag symptoms to look out for in sore throats
white spots/ pus
bacterial infection / recurring infection
4 symptomatic treatments of sore throats
1. analgesics - para
2. sprays - anti inflammatory (benzydamine, difflam), or local anaesthetics (benzocaine, lidocaine)
2. demulcents - sooth & moisturise - glyerol syrup, simple linctus
3. lozenges - antiseptic (cetlpridinium),
anti bacterial (tyrothricin - tyrozets)
anti fungal (dequalium- fluribrofen)
what is a cough? what are the 2 types?
protective reflex action - caused by viral URTIs
1. productive - phlegm produced/chesty
2. non productive - no phlegm, dry, tickle cough usually by an irritant or medication
name referral points for coughs?
cough for >3 weeks
sputum is yellow, red, blood, brown, green
persistent night time cough in children- asthma
what medicines can cause a cough?
ACE inhibitors (for high blood pressure)- dry tickly e.g ramipril
what are the 4 treatments for coughs - general?
State the type of cough expectorants are used to treat and explain how they work
used to treat a productive / chesty cough
they loosen the phlegm and assist in mucus removal. They reduce the viscosity of the sputum to aid coughing up to remove the phlegm from the throat
Name 4 examples of expectorants
what do demulcents do in a cough? give examples
Sooth and moisturise the throat - relieves the irritation that causes the coughing
- Simple linctus
- Honey (and lemon tea)
what do opioids do in a cough? Give examples
depress the cough reflex via the brain
Codeine (>18 years)
3 days use max
What do antihistamines do for a cough and give examples?
anti-cholinergic action results in anti-tussive effects (relive cough) BUT can cause drowsiness.
Age restrictions on OTC cough and cold medicines?
No longer recommended for children under 6 years of age (except glycerol, simple linctus, para and ibuprofen)
what is allergic rhinitis?
inflammatory disorder of the nose which occurs when the membranes lining the nose become sensitised to allergens e.g pollen, dust, hair - trigger an unwanted immune response
What are the 3 types of allergic rhinitis?
symptoms of hay fever
itchy eyes and eyelids
what is hay fever?
allergy caused by pollen - mucous membranes of the eyes/nose become inflamed
referral for allergic rhinitis?
shortness of breath
painful ear / sinuses
what are the 3 types of treatment for allergic rhinitis?
Name the 3 types of oral antihistamines and the dosages
1. chlorphenamine - Adult 4mg every 4-6 hours (max 24mg in 24hrs), child - syrup - >1 year (can cause drowsiness)
2. Loratidine & cetirizine - 10mg once daily. Long acting
(loratadine >2, cetirizine >6 years of age)
3. Acrivastine - adult 8mg TDS (max 24g in 24 hrs) - non drowsy - ages 12-65 (fast acting)- brand = Benadryl