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Flashcards in RTS - respiratory conditions Deck (31)
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1

what is a cold?

viral, associated with the upper respiratory tract
transmitted via droplets and is very contagious & common.
- aches and pains
- sneezing
- running nose or blocked
- sore throat
- mild to moderate hacking cough

2

what is the flu?

viral, the whole respiratory tract - 3 types of myxovirus - A.B,C
- there is a vaccine for it
transmitted via droplet inhalation
Symptoms:
- prominent headache
- sudden onset of temperature for 3-4 days
- severe aches and pains
- extreme fatigue and weakness
- severe cough
- chest discomfort

3

how long do colds and flu last?

Colds- 4-7 days
Flu- 2-3 weeks

4

referral / red flag symptoms of respiratory/flu/cold

chest pain - especially if down the arm
shortness of breath - asthma?
wheezing
nature of sputum - blood, green, brown, red (red brown indicates pneumonia)
severe pain
stiff neck/non blanching rash
treatment failure

5

symptomatic treatment for col and flu symptoms - congestion, runny nose

congestion - steam inahaltion (bowl, boiling water, towel & menthol)
- inahalants, nasal sprays, decongestants e.g pseudoephedrine
-

runny nose: antihistamines

6

treatment for cold and flu symptoms - tickly/sore throat, pyrexia and cough

throat - lozenges, throat spray (numbs area so be careful), honey and lemon tea
pyrexia - paracetamol or ibuprofen
cough - cough mixtures, combination products

7

what are the restrictions on the sale of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine?

what brand is this?

there are limits as they can be used to manufacture crystal meth.

- Pseudeoephedrine max OTC = 720mg
- Ephedrine max OTC = 180mg

Brand = sudafed.
largest pack size of sudafed tablets if each one contains 16mg is 12 packs

8

lifestyle advice for cold and flu

- explain it is caused by a virus - symptoms should improve within 10 or so days
- rest, keep warm, plenty of fluids
- vitamins, zinc, menthol
- high risk groups = influenza vaccine
- treat symptoms

9

what is a sore throat?

associated with cold and flu but can occur alone.Mostly viral infections and self limiting 7-10 days.
If its bacterial MUST refer

10

what medication can cause a sore throat?

carbimazole chemotherapy
steroid inhalers - if not using them properly then it could lead to oral thrush - must check they are using correct and rinsing mouth afterwards

11

referral or red flag symptoms to look out for in sore throats

babies/infants
dysphagia
white spots/ pus
sputum nature
oral thrush
treatment fail
bacterial infection / recurring infection

12

4 symptomatic treatments of sore throats

1. analgesics - para
2. sprays - anti inflammatory (benzydamine, difflam), or local anaesthetics (benzocaine, lidocaine)
2. demulcents - sooth & moisturise - glyerol syrup, simple linctus
3. lozenges - antiseptic (cetlpridinium),
anti bacterial (tyrothricin - tyrozets)
anti fungal (dequalium- fluribrofen)

13

what is a cough? what are the 2 types?

protective reflex action - caused by viral URTIs

1. productive - phlegm produced/chesty
2. non productive - no phlegm, dry, tickle cough usually by an irritant or medication

14

name referral points for coughs?

cough for >3 weeks
sputum is yellow, red, blood, brown, green
chest pain
persistent night time cough in children- asthma
wheezing
suspected ADR
treatment fail

15

what medicines can cause a cough?

ACE inhibitors (for high blood pressure)- dry tickly e.g ramipril

16

what are the 4 treatments for coughs - general?

- demulcents
- expectorants
- opioids
- antihistamines

17

State the type of cough expectorants are used to treat and explain how they work

used to treat a productive / chesty cough
they loosen the phlegm and assist in mucus removal. They reduce the viscosity of the sputum to aid coughing up to remove the phlegm from the throat

18

Name 4 examples of expectorants

Ammonium salts
squill
guaifenisen
ipecacuanha

19

what do demulcents do in a cough? give examples

Sooth and moisturise the throat - relieves the irritation that causes the coughing
- Glycerol
- Simple linctus
- Honey (and lemon tea)

20

what do opioids do in a cough? Give examples

depress the cough reflex via the brain
pholcodeine
Codeine (>18 years)
dextromethorphan
3 days use max

21

What do antihistamines do for a cough and give examples?

anti-cholinergic action results in anti-tussive effects (relive cough) BUT can cause drowsiness.
e.g
diphenylhydramine
tripolidine

22

Age restrictions on OTC cough and cold medicines?

No longer recommended for children under 6 years of age (except glycerol, simple linctus, para and ibuprofen)

23

what is allergic rhinitis?

inflammatory disorder of the nose which occurs when the membranes lining the nose become sensitised to allergens e.g pollen, dust, hair - trigger an unwanted immune response

24

What are the 3 types of allergic rhinitis?

- seasonal
- occupational
- perennial

25

symptoms of hay fever

itchy eyes and eyelids
runny nose
watery eyes
sneezing
puffy eyes

26

what is hay fever?

allergy caused by pollen - mucous membranes of the eyes/nose become inflamed

27

referral for allergic rhinitis?

wheezing
shortness of breath
painful ear / sinuses
parulent conjunctivitis
treatment failure

28

what are the 3 types of treatment for allergic rhinitis?

Oral antihistamines
eye drops
Nasal sprays

29

Name the 3 types of oral antihistamines and the dosages

1. chlorphenamine - Adult 4mg every 4-6 hours (max 24mg in 24hrs), child - syrup - >1 year (can cause drowsiness)

2. Loratidine & cetirizine - 10mg once daily. Long acting
(loratadine >2, cetirizine >6 years of age)

3. Acrivastine - adult 8mg TDS (max 24g in 24 hrs) - non drowsy - ages 12-65 (fast acting)- brand = Benadryl

30

Name antihistamine eye drops

Sodium cromoglicate - a mast cell stabiliser which stops it releasing histamine - prevents it. e.g optrex allergy